China in Convulsio



Twenty-nine years a Missionary of the American Board in China Author of *' Chinese Characteristics " and " Village Life in China " With Numerous Illustrations and Maps


Volume Two


Copyright 1901 by FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY (November) Press of Riggs Printins^ df Publishing Co. Albany, N. Y. CONTENTS

Volume II

XX. Siege Life 365
XXI. Days of Waiting 383
XXII. Renewal of the Attack 402
XXIII. The Relief 419
XXIV. From Taku to Peking 435
XXV. The Fortifications 462
XXVI. After the Siege 485
XXVII. Hand of God in the Siege 508
XXVIII. Punishment of Peking 517
XXIX. The Capital in Transformation 535
XXX. Ruin of T'ung Chou 555
XXXI. Tientsin after the Siege 571
XXXII. Foreigners in the Interior 594
XXXIII. Notable Experiences 621
XXXIV. The Catastrophe to the Native Church 650
XXXV. Personal Narratives 665
XXXVI. Fire and Sword in Shansi 207
XXXVII. A Twelve-month of Foreign Occupation 713
XXXVIII. The Outlook 733




First Train Passing Through the Wall of Peking Title The " International " Gun, " Our Betsey " . . . 373
Fortified Bridge across the Moat near Legation Street 383
British Legation Gate^ Fuel Supply Committee . . 402
Buddhist Temple and Modern Tram Car .... 416
Water Gate, Peking, through which Allies Entered . 416
" Here They Come." General Gaselee on the Right . 432
Fraternizing on the Tennis Court 432
Black Fort at Tientsin, Outside View .... 446
Black Fort at Tientsin. Inside View 446
Wall of Tientsin After Bombardment .... 452
Gate Through which Allies entered Tientsin . . 452
Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters .... 460
Court, Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters . . 460
Gateway to British Legation, Moat and Barricade . 468
The Six " Fighting P.a.rsons " and Sergeant AIurphy at Fort Cockburn 474
Group of American Missionaries present during the Siege 494
Ruins of Presbyterian Mission, Peking .... 498
Ruins of Methodist Mission, Peking 498
British Legation Wall S02
Chinese Gun Platform for Firing on the Legation . 502
Coming out of Church, Legation Grounds . . . 508
Railway Station, Peking 518
Police Station, Peking S18
Chien Men Gate, Peking 522
Ruins of Chien Men Gate 522
Y. M. C. A. Headquarters, Peking 528
Street Panorama, Peking 528
Coal Hill, Chinese Serving German Officers . . . 532
Summer Palace from the Lake 532
Tartar Wall, Location of Astronomical Observatory . 545
Temple of Agriculture, Peking, American Headquarters 548
Entrance Temple of Agriculture. American Headquarters 548
North China College, T'ung Chou 558
American Board Mission, Tientsin 576
American Board Mission. Tientsin, after the Siege . 576
Arsenal, Tientsin 586
Ruins of Roman Catholic Cathedral. Tientsin . . 586
First British-Chinese Regiment, Wei Hai Wei . . 590
Russian Troops en route to Peking 590
Pei Tai Ho Watering Place, from which Foreigners WERE rescued BY CONSUL FoWLER 604
Corner of City Wall, Pao Ting Fu, destroyed by Allied Troops in Punishment for Massacre . . . .611
Pastor Meng, a Martyr of Pao Ting Fu . . . . 680
Miss Gould of Pao Ting Fu and School Girls . . . 682
^Ianchu Family, some of them Christians . . . 700
Nattvx Christian Refugee 700
Vicinity of Legation Street, Peking 722
Dr. Ament Receiving Deputation .... 730

Map showing routes of Relief Forces .... 438
Plan of British Legation, Peking 480
Map of se.\t of Boxer Disturbance 620


THERE is need of a digression at this point, to explain certain phases of the routine of siege hfe which are otherwise in danger of being overlooked. The matter of registration labour supply was one of the first importance. No sooner were the foreigners settled in the Legation and the Chinese in the Su Wang Fu, than a systematic census was begun under the Com- mittee on Registration. The list of foreigners was soon complete and required little revision. That of the Chinese proved for a variety of reasons far more difficult. Two most important and useful officers in the siege were the Superintendent of Labour and the Registrar. Their work to a large extent dovetailed, the former mainly controlling the Protestant labour supply outside the Lega- tion and the latter the time of every Chinese living within its walls. To the energy, vigilance, kindness, firmness and tact of these two men much of the results achieved is to be attributed. The labour of the Roman Catholics living outside the British Legation, it should be remarked, after an unsatisfactory experiment on the part of the committee, was directed by their priests, and by the French, Japanese and others for whom work was done. The registration put into effect in the Fu was modelled after that which had been found to work successfully in the British Legation.


The demand for labour was clamorous and universal. Many of the Legation servants had fled some time before, and others had to be found for their places. All the numerous housekeepers must have a detail of cooks, table boys and coolies ; the hospital required a staff always at the command of the surgeons ; there were many horses to be fed and watered ; the scavenger and other sanitary work was imperative and, like the bakery and laundry, did not admit of irregular depletion of employees. Some educated native Christians, like the scholar class of Chinese, were unused to manual labour and unfitted for it ; but every grade and variety of talent was eventually utilized, especially those able to speak English, who could serve as messengers, interpreters, or overseers. A small percentage of men manifested a rooted and chronic dis- inclination to active effort, but ere long these idiosyn- crasies were dealt with on their real merits. When the incessant calls for labour had first to be met, much confusion reigned for many days. Let an actual case stand as a sample : At nine o'clock one evening an order came from Col. Shiba. commanding the Japanese in the Su Wang Fu, for ten men and fifty sand bags for immediate use. The superintendent secured the bags, but could find only four available men. He then waked up another gentleman who, being appointed on a wholly different committee had nothing to do with the present exigency, but assisted on general principles. On arriving at the Fu this gentle- man learned that Col. Shiba had already got the men needed from the Roman Catholics near at hand. Meantime a note had come to the British Legation from the American Captain on the wall, requiring twenty men to raise higher the western wall of the eastern barri- cade, as the Chinese west barricade was firing into it.


The superintendent excused a lad too small to handle the huge bricks on the wall, and sent the same obliging substitute with the three men on hand to aid the band that were kept permanently in the American Legation for emergencies, but happened on this occasion already to have been working all day. When he arrived there the Captain who gave the order had been relieved, and his successor in charge knew nothing about any call for men, but informed the conductor of the workmen that it had been decided to postpone the work until daylight, when it would be done better. The ad interim assistant, the superintendent and the Chinese were then enabled to retire for what remained of the night. Perhaps a summons arrived from the French to con- struct an important barricade. No men could be found, for it was late at night, when the labour market, espe- cially the free labour market, is generally closed. A visit to the Fu disclosed numbers of Chinese lying about, but each one proved to have some cherished and dangerous malady. One is the victim of a persistent diarrhcea, an- other shows by a lim.p that his lower leg is broken in two places, the crepitation of the bones being, as he alleges, distinctly audible ; not, however, to the trained ear of the foreign examiner, who soon ascertains that the man is after all able to walk. Some deserve to be excused, but by degrees, between boys and men, the order is filled and they are sent to work. The superintendent is no more than back at the Lega- tion, ready for bed after an exhausting day's work in reducing order from chaos, when a request comes for ten men immediately to work all night on a new and impor- tant barricade in the Hanlin Yuan. No one but the superintendent can find the men. and to the summons of no one else will they respond. Once more the Fu


must be visited and every sleeping room entered with a lantern. In the darkness dusky forms are dimly seen prone upon the k'angs. Here the drafting process is re- peated, until at length the required number is obtained, but in transit through so many court3^ards and in cross- ing the canal in the darkness it turns out that three out of the ten have escaped, and being unknov^n they cannot be identified. At a later period every man had his number not only entered on the register but sewed upon his cloth- ing, so that evasion of duty like this became impossible. About midnight one hears a great disturbance and angry remonstrances. The weary registrar is roused from his slumbers by an urgent demand for seventeen of the short shovels used by marines, wanted at once by somebody in another Legation. After an hour's hard work and a visit to every place where digging is known to have been prosecuted the day before, some of them are found, but upon being brought in as a part of what is wanted are refused, for they have not the serrated edges of the Austrian shovels. In the renewed search every doubtful spot is approached with a lantern. " Put out that light," cries a sentr}-, with the addition of emphatic language. He is informed that the search is being conducted under official orders and will be con- tinued until the required articles are found. At a later stage, the duty of a ship's yeoman is added to that of the registrar, and the tools, as far as possible, had to be called in at night and kept in a box near the bell tower. Under careless Chinese use, spades, shovels, and picks, of which the supply was originally lamentably small and for which the demand was general and insistent, have their handles broken off and are rendered useless. The assistant registrar afterward added to his many other functions that of general repairer, and as far as possible


counteracted the ravages of the wasteful cooHe. The Chinese carpenters were kept busy making handles, as also the blacksmiths in their efforts to point iron rods so as to serve as picks or crowbars. As the result of an orderly evolution of registry every Chinese on the premises came to be known not only by name but by his reputation ; the better and more thor- ough workmen requiring little or no supervision, the lazy and inefficient ones needing constant stimulus. Each man was provided with a ticket good for that day only, en- titling him to one meal or to two, according to the amount of work done. When he had finished his work and eaten his meal he returned to his family in the Fu. After the Fu was mostly lost, and it became necessary to remove the Protestants to the vacant houses between the canal and the American Legation, the task of getting labour was much expedited. Those liable to night work were then kept on the premises where they were needed, and where they could not escape. If a man living in the Fu were derelict in his work at the Legation his pass was taken away and he could not get out to return to his family, a punishment generally quite sufficient, as their food depended upon him. Some Chinese were fortunate or provident enough to have food supplies of their own, which rendered them in a measure independent. In a solitary instance a man of some education after persistently refusing to work, and repeated warnings, was at last tied to a post with his hands behind him, there to remain until his views upon the relation of military law to muscular activity and to rations became materially modified, which happened within a few hours. The carelessness of the Chinese in everywhere knock- ing out the burning ashes of their pipes, made it neces- 370 CHINA IN CONVULSION sary to forbid smoking in buildings. Those guilty of violating this rule were put on duty for four-and-twenty hours continuously. In an especially aggravated case the cook of one of the Legations was discovered to have built a fire of a dangerous and unlawful kind late at night, to see how to take care of his child. At whatever incon- venience to individuals the authority of the committee, found by experience to be just and wholesome, was sustained against all appeals, of which, however, there were but few. Those liable to punishment were sent to whatever work was most urgent ; if it chanced that for the time there was none such, they might temporarily escape. But however perfect the system of registration and labour supply, the simultaneous demand for details of men who were not available necessarily made many hitches in the progress of military work. Thus six men were de- tailed for labour on fortifications in the Hanlin, but at that juncture a pile of sand bags had fallen in a heavy shower from a hospital window into a gutter, stopping the drainage. The six men were deflected from the less to the more pressing task, but while on the way one of them was called ofif to carry to the Chinese hospital a woman who in a time of special danger had been shot in crossing the canal from the Fu. The need of labour made it necessary to require from every able-bodied Chinese two hours' work each day for the public, which often proved irksome alike to servants, mistress and superintendents. Against this requisition, which was later supplemented by another for the whole time of one or more of the large staff of servants, some employers were disposed to re- monstrate vigorously. One gentleman who had at first been very energetic in his cooperation, at a later period SIEGE LIFE 371 asked a detail of men for the purpose of getting his pri- vate dwelling ready for a rain, and still later for two labourers to clear up the grounds of the Russian Lega- tion. The unforgetting Registrar recollecting that two of this gentleman's servants had for some time evaded duty, went to his kitchen and called them out. They ob- jected that they were not liable, as they did not live in the British but in the Russian Legation. " Exactly," was the reply, " there is where you are to work," and the amazed and abused master was then pre- sented with two of his own servants to do his own work in his own Legation! The work done by the besieged Christians, often hard and exhausting, in no case rewarded with anything more than a bare subsistence, was in general performed with characteristic Chinese patience and perseverance, many of them, under the tireless supervision of foreigners, throw- ing into it much energy, and in some cases considerable skill. Indeed their behaviour was almost uniformly admir- able. Instead of being a dead-weight to be carried by foreigners as many of these besieged feared they would be, they were soon found to be an indispensable means to the salvation of the rest, and except they had abode in the ship none would have been saved. As in all large bodies collected at random, there were some black sheep, and many speckled ones, but as a rule the patient, uncom- plaining fidelity of the Christians in toilsome tasks under dangerous conditions was beyond praise. The steadiness under constant attacks, and in the midst of repeated re- movals from one unsafe place to another, manifested by the Chinese women, and especially by the 120 and more school girls, were also noteworthy. Many Chinese were furnished with rifles, and fought at the loop-holes side 372 CHINA IN CONVULSION by side with the plucky and soldierly Japanese, winning even their cordial commendation. A good number were killed in posts of danger, many others were struck by the innumerable flying bullets, two of the best helpers of the Methodists — one of them an ordained pastor — falling at the same time. Many others fell victims to disease, and probably a score or two of poor Chinese children died from disease aggravated by mal-nutrition, but the mothers bore their deep grief with Christian fortitude, and uttered no word of reproach to the Fate in which all non-Christian Chinese have a firm faith, but rather thanked the Heavenly 'Father for such mercies as they still enjoyed. Each day there was a gathering both of Chinese and foreigners upon the lawn, to examine the growing pile of clothing and other stuff brought into the Legation. This may be a fitting opportunity to explain in detail the method of dealing with confiscated goods. The area enclosed by the numerous Legations being extensive, it was inevitable that many Chinese families who had no connection either with foreigners or with the Boxers should find them- selves gradually encircled with troops, making entrance and exit increasingly difficult, and a prosecution of their ordinary business impossible. As time went on most of these families became alarmed at the outlook and fied while it was not yet too late, some of them, however, leaving behind trustworthy servants to look after their premises. But numberless dwelling houses and many shops were absolutely deserted, some of the latter being well stocked with goods of many sorts, and many of the former being well furnished. In the confusion of the time it was inevitable that many shops and houses should be exposed to raids from neighbours who remained, as well :is from needy Christians, many of iLiiH SIEGE LIFE 373 whom had fled for their Hves with only the clothing which they wore. Soon after the general gathering into the British Le- gation, when it became necessary to check promiscuous pillage and to secure a wise use of the miscellaneous articles thus placed within reach, Dr. Ament was ap- pointed a committee with plenary powers. An impromptu depository of second-hand clothing was established on the tennis court lawn, resembling the storeroom of a Chinese pawnshop. For many days it supplied hundreds of Chi- nese with clothing and bedding for themselves and their families, until the demand appeared to be fairly met. But many Chinese were unable while at work to guard their possessions, and others ruined their clothes in the heavy rains, or while labouring in the damp trenches or on the wall ; these had to be resupplied, yet still the inflow kept on. Foreigners, too, drew liberally from the same source, until the superintendence of the business became a heavy load of responsibility and care. When there was a scarcity of material for sand bags the Chinese women cut apart many wadded garments, whose legs and arms, filled with earth, were used to add to the prophylactic embankments on the walls and house- tops. In quest of bag material, scores (perhaps hun- dreds) of Chinese houses were entered, but nothing was anywhere taken by force. Some of these dwellings had already been visited and largely despoiled, but others were fresh fields and pastures new. A great variety of articles which at first appeared to have no relation to the wants of a beleaguered garrison, ultimately proved to be most useful, especially tools from a blacksmith's shop and an old Chinese cannon nicknamed " Betsy," or " The Inter- national." Some of the abandoned dwellings had been forsaken in hot haste, and contained elegant garments. 374 CHINA IN CONVULSION pieces of silk, furs, valuable chinaware, clocks and curios. A large quantity of such articles was found in the Su Wang Fu. One of the Japanese barricades was largely composed of trunks full of priceless raiment, seized as the most available material ; all of this was ruined by contact with earth, or by rains, or was destroyed in the fires. The Christians lodged in the Su Wang Fu gave early information of the probable concealment of a considerable quantity of sycee silver, which was brought away and stored in the strong room of the British Legation until the close of the siege. Small guns were also found in some of the shops, and also many irredeemable bank bills. On one occasion about seventy taels was discovered in a coal pile, and other amounts were doubtless confiscated by the Chinese on their own account. The owners of two foreign stores on Legation Street decided to abandon them, bringing into the Legation what- ever could be saved. As the siege became closer and the risk in visiting the stores became evident by the whis- tling of bullets and the killing of one of the workmen, the owner of the larger one gave notice that whoever wished to take any of the remaining articles was wel- come to do so. It was an unfortunate and ill-judged step, which for a few days made looting legal, and so facili- tated the universal diffusion of intoxicating liquors that an order was soon issued forbidding any one what- ever to visit the place without the express permission of the General Committee. Thereafter, the articles res- cued were put into the hands of a commissariat and is- sued only upon due requisition, a course which should have been adopted from the first. During the brief reign of unchecked lawlessness the general demoralization was very great. Many messes SIEGE LIFE 375 of poor Chinese ate their rice out of broken crockery, but with the addition perhaps of a plate-glass mirror set in a plush frame, or a cut-glass syrup pitcher flanked by a marble clock. The commissariat issued not only stores and utensils but everything which came to hand. All the memoranda of the progress of the siege were entered in note books, with pencil or pen and ink, all of which had been secured by application to the obliging supply com- mittee. One had but to make his necessities sufficiently known to insure such a supply for them as the case ad- mitted, for the besieged in a most literal sense had all things common. The bulletin boards, where were posted the translations of the " Peking Gazettes " obtained during the armistice, were surrounded for days with a crowd that exhibited the keenest interest in the utterances of that unique publica- tion. Many of these were printed many weeks before, but some of them were highly important, and most of them quite new. The most important utterance among them was a de- cree issued the day after the murder of the German Min- ister, but significantly making no reference whatever to that occurrence. It is a window through which the Chinese side of the international question may be seen. It ran as follows : " Ever since the foundation of the dynasty, foreigners coming to China have been kinclly treated. In the reign of Tao Kuang and Hsian Feng they were allowed to trade ; they also asked leave to propagate their religion, a request which the Throne reluctantly granted. At first they were amenable to Chinese control, but for the past thirty years they have taken advantage of China's for- bearance to encroach on China's territory and trample on the Chinese people and to demand China's wealth. Every 376 CHINA IN CONVULSION concession made by China increased their reliance on vio- lence. They oppressed peaceful citizens and insulted the gods and holy men, exciting the most burning indig- nation among the people. Hence the destruction of the chapels and the slaughter of converts by the patriotic braves. The Throne was anxious to avoid war and issued edicts enjoining the protection of the Legations and pity to the converts. The decrees declaring Boxers and con- verts to be equally the children of the State were issued with the hope of removing the old feud between people and converts and extreme kindness was shown to the strangers from afar. " But these people knew no gratitude and increased their pressure. A despatch w^as yesterday sent by Du Chaylard, Doyen of the Consular body at Tientsin, call- ing on us to deliver up the Taku forts into their keeping, otherwise they would be taken by force. These threats show their aggressions. In all matters relating to inter- national intercourse we have never been wanting in courtesies to them ; but they, while styling themselves civilized States, have acted without regard for right, re- lying solely on their military force. " We have now reigned nearly thirty years and have treated the people as our children, the people honouring us as their deity ; and in the midst of our reign we have been the recipients of the gracious favour of the Empress Dowager. Furthermore our ancestors have come to our aid and the gods have answered to our call, and never has there been so universal a mani- festation of loyalty and patriotism. With tears have we announced the war in the ancestral shrines. Better to do our utmost and enter on the struggle than seek some means of self preservation involving eternal dis- grace. All our officials, high and low, are of one mind. SIEGE LIFE 377 and there have assembled without official summons sev- eral hundred thousand patriotic soldiers [Boxers], even children carrying spears in the service of their country. Those others rely on crafty schemes ; our trust is in heaven's justice. They depend on violence, we on hu- manity. Not to speak of the righteousness of our cause, our provinces number more than twenty, our people over four hundred millions, and it will not be difficult to vindi- cate the dignity of our country." Another Decree, in the "Gazette" of June 21st, ex- presses the satisfaction with which the Throne has re- ceived the report of the Governor General of Chihli, Yii Lu, of the successful engagements at Tientsin on the I7th-i9th of that month, and gives much praise to the Boxers who have done great services without any assist- ance either of men or money from the State. Great favour will be shown them later on, and they must con- tinue to show their devotion. The phraseology of the Decrees already cited serve as an excellent specimen of the Janus-faced utterances of the Empress Dowager in regard to the Boxers. They are violators of treaties, have been often rebuked and must now positively disperse, yet a few days later they are loyal and patriotic, and de- serve well of their Empress, who will reward them. On the 24th of June the Board of Revenue is ordered to give Kang I two hundred bags of rice for distribution as provisions among the Boxers. Still another Decree of the same date mentions, as previously quoted, that since the Boxers — now styled " Boxer Militia " — are scattered all around Peking and Tientsin, it is necessary and proper that they should have Superintendents placed over them (in other words be definitely and fully accepted as in the employ of the Chinese Government). Accordingly Prince Chuang, and the Assistant Grand Secretary Kang I were 378 CHINA IN CONVULSION appointed to the general command, Ying Nien to act as brigadier general of the left wing, and Tsai Lan of the right. All the members of the I Ho T'uan (it is re- marked) are exerting their utmost energies, and the Im- perial Family must not fall behind in harbouring revenge against our enem.ies. It is Our confident hope that the desires of each and all be successfully consummated, and it is of the utmost importance that no lack of energy be shown. On the 27th, Edicts commanded Yu Lu to retake the Taku Forts, and to prevent the foreign troops from creep- ing northward ; and ordered the distribution of one hun- dred thousand taels of silver to the divisions of troops in the Metropolitan districts, and a like sum to the Box- ers assisting them. During these weeks there are frequent references in memorials and in Imperial Decrees to the general law- lessness which had resulted from the encouragement to irresponsible private individuals, as well as to soldiers, to take vengeance. Were there no other proof, these documents alone would show that the Capital and its en- virons were under a reign of terror, against which there are numerous protests both from Censors and from the Empress herself. But the mischief is always laid to those who pretended to belong to the Boxer Militia in order to plunder and kill, and it is these (and not the Boxers as a class) who are ordered to be rigorously dealt with. On the 2nd of July another important Edict appeared, under the aegis of which the slaughter of all foreigners, mission- aries not more than others, anrl the extermination of all native Christians who would not recant, became a duty. " Ever since Foreign Nations began the propaga- tion of their religion there have been instances through- SIEGE LIFE 379 out the country of ill-feeling between the people and the converts. All this is due to faulty administration on the part of local authorities, giving rise to feuds. The truth is that the converts also are children of the State, and among them are not wanting good and worthy people ; but they have been led away by false doctrines, and have relied on the missionary for support, with the result that they have committed many misdeeds. They hold to their errors and will not turn from them, and irreconcilable enmity has thus grown up between the converts and the people. " The Throne is now exhorting every member of the Boxer Militia to render loyal and patriotic service, and to take his part against the enemies of his country, so that the whole population may be of one mind. Knowing that the converts are also subjects owing fealty to the Throne, we also know that they can bring themselves to form a class apart and invite their own destruction. If they can change their hearts there is no reason why they should not be allowed to escape from the net. The Viceroys and Governors of the Provinces are all there- fore to give orders to all local officials to issue the fol- lowing notification : All those among the converts who repent of their former errors and give themselves up to the authorities, shall be allowed to reform, and their past shall be ignored. The public shall also be notified that in all places where converts reside, they shall be al- lowed to report to the local authorities, and each case will be settled according to general regulations which will be drawn up later. " As hostilities have now broken out between China and Foreign Nations, the missionaries of every country must be driven away at once to their own countries, so that they may not linger here and make trouble. But it is 380 CHINA IN CONVULSION important that measures be taken to secure their protec- tion on their journey. The high provincial authorities shall make close investigation into the circumstances of all places within their jurisdiction, and speedily take the necessary steps. Let there be no carelessness. (The above Decree is to be circulated for general informa- tion.) " The putting forth of this Edict was doubtless regarded by its authors as the happy issue of a long and doubtful contest, in which China by a few sweeps of a camel's- hair pencil had now obliterated forty years of the Past, and entered upon a new era! On the 9th of July Li Hung Chang was appointed Viceroy of Chihli, and Superintendent of the Trade which the rulers of China had by this time extinguished in that part of the Empire. Pending Li's arrival, the former Governor General, Yii Lu, was to consult with Prince Ch'ing as to the best measures to be taken, and the latter are warned against a slackening of responsibility. On the I2th of July Gen. Nieh, who fought near Tien- tsin, is severely rated for his failures and blunders and deprived of his rank although retained in command (a favourite Chinese punishment), and in the same sentence his death at the head of his troops is mentioned without comment. On July 15th the Acting Governor of Shansi quotes a Decree which had been issued on the 20th of June to the several Governors General, and Governors, in which the following significant sentence occurs : " They must suggest plans for safe-guarding the boundaries of the Empire against the aggressive designs of the foreigner, and see that reenforcements be sent to the assistance of the Capital, in order that no disaster befall the Dynasty." Three days later ai)pcared a Decree which sets forth SIEGE LIFE 381 another aspect of the international troubles, again refers to the murder of the Japanese Chancellor, and for the first time mentions that of the German Minister, nearly a month previous, carefully avoiding the least informa- tion as to the circumstances. By this time the pressure of events succeeding the capture of Tientsin began to be severely felt in Peking, and the dissensions among the followers of the Empress were at their maximum. " The reason for the fighting between the Chinese and the foreigners sprung from a disagreement between the people and the Christian converts. We could but enter upon war when the forts at Taku were taken. Never- theless the Government is not willing lightly to break off the friendly relations which have existed. We have re- peatedly issued Edicts to protect the Ministers of the dif- ferent countries. We have also ordered the missionaries in the various provinces to be protected. The fighting has not yet become extensive. There are many mer- chants of the various countries within our dominions. All alike should be protected. It is ordered that the Generals and Governors examine carefully where there are merchants or missionaries, and still, according to the provisions of the treaties, protect them without the least carelessness. Last month the Chancellor of the Japanese Legation was killed. This was indeed most unexpected. Before this matter had been settled, the German Minister was killed. Suddenly meeting this affair caused us deep grief. We ought vigorously to seek the murderer and punish him. " Aside from the fighting at Tientsin, the Metropolitan Department (Shun Tien Fu) and the Governor General of this province should command officers under them to examine what foreigners have been causelessly killed, 382 CHINA IN CONVULSION and what property destroyed, and report the same, that all may be settled together. The vagabonds who have been burning houses, robbing and killing the people these many days have produced a state of chaos. It is ordered that the Governors General, Governors, and high military officials clearly ascertain the circumstances, and unite in reducing the confusion to order and quiet, and root out the cause of the disturbance." XXI DAYS OF WAITING SUNDAY, July 22. — Early this morning some of the Chinese went out through the water-gate into the southern city to buy fruit, but when others tried it a little later they were fired upon, so that the market is spoiled. Labour on the barricades was sus- pended at II A. M., the first time this has been practicable, as on most of the previous Sundays work has been more urgent than on other days. The courier to Tientsin with messages got off about noon, and the package was so large that he asked to have its size reduced a little for better concealment. (To many friends of the besieged the word brought by this courier was the first gleam of hope after almost utter despair.) The baby of Dr. and Mrs. John Inglis died during the day, and was buried at nightfall, — one of the six infants who succumbed during the siege. It is rumoured that the Japanese, always the most en- terprising collectors of outside reports, have heard that our troops have already got half way to Peking travel- ling along the bank of the river. Tung Fu Hsiang is said to have lost his influence, and his men are scattering from him, but according to others he has gone out to oppose our troops. The Chinese have put up a new barricade in the Hanlin. A Chinese soldier has in- formed some one that we are now surrounded by only about 900 men. 383 384 CHINA IN CONVULSION Monday, July 23. — A heavy rain came on in the evening yesterday and kept up all night. There were many collapses of barricades, and in the Hanlin a part of a house-wall suddenly fell, covering the mattresses upon which the volunteers had just been lying. The buildings in Peking are as insubstantial as any others in China, often being composed of small pieces of bricks not larger than one's fist, bound loosely together with mud and a mere suggestion of lime. The result is that whenever a heavy and continuous rain-fall occurs, the walls may be heard falling in all directions — often to the danger of those living within the flimsy structures. The rain is very destructive to the sand bags, especially to the more expensive ones, which are not meant for such a strain as this. Many of them collapse into mere heaps of slush. Early this morning the Norwegian whose mind had become unbalanced took advantage of the rain, the dark- ness, and the slumbering guards, British and Chinese, to make his escape over the wall, desirous of speedily falling into the hands of the Chinese, where it is feared he will not fare so well as he expects. It is said that despite the apparent diminution in the number of Chinese troops, they are building new barricades. Yesterday a dog was sent from one of their fortifications to one of ours, with a letter in his mouth — all that is left in Peking of the Imperial Postal Service ! Tuesday, July 24. — It was very hot in the night, so that many could not sleep. The Japanese Secretary of Legation, Mr. Harahara, died of tetanus, greatly re- gretted both by foreigners and Japanese. He had the reputation of a great knowledge of China, and was uni- versally liked. There appeared to be a severe attack upon the Pei Tang last night, judging by the constant sounds DAYS OF WAITING 385 of firing there. On the wall the coolies worked at the barricade till after nine o'clock, when the Chinese began firing on them, and the work stopped. Notwithstanding the " truce " firing goes on, and four Chinese have been wounded in the Fu to-day, as well as one Italian, A mat-shed has been erected over the de- fences at the front gate of the British Legation, to pre- vent it from being ruined by the heavy rain, and only one shot was fired by the Chinese. After dark a notice was posted that Col. Shiba had seen a Chinese who told him that foreign troops occupied Yang Ts'un on the 17th, and fought a battle on the 19th. One hundred and fifty wounded Chinese of Tung Fu Hsiang's army are said to have been brought to Peking, and foreign troops were forty li this side of Yang Ts'un. This news is discredited by Mr. Conger and many others, as being too fast an advance for the time during which troops must have been on the way. Wednesday, July 25. — About I A. M., we were startled by hearing a great many rifle-shots in succession, mainly from the direction of the Mongol market, indi- cating that a renewed attack was beginning, but it was all over in less than five minutes. It is reported that yester- day a Japanese shot a Chinese who was getting over his barricade, a Chinese in retaliation shot a Chinese Chris- tian, when the Japanese returned the fire; the Chinese then wounded an Italian, on which a British marine killed the man who shot him! Two days ago there were rumours of a large Chinese force from Pao Ting Fu. which would soon attack the Legations. Now it is said that troops are coming in from the Western Park, to be separated into two divisions at two of the Peking gates. There is a rumour that there was an attempt, to blow up the Pei T'ang recently, but 386 CHINA IN CONVULSION that it did not succeed, or that at least the Cathedral was not injured. The Chinese soldier who has been giving information to the Japanese, now informs them that a battle was fought on the 24th, between Ts'ai Ts'un and Ho Hsi Wu, lasting from noon till midnight, after which the Chinese retired on Ho Hsi Wu. A flag of truce was sent during the day to the German Legation with several letters. One of these is to Sir Claude from " Prince Ch'ing and Others " say- ing that a great many inquiries are being made of the Chinese Government as to the safety of the Ministers. The Chinese Government is willing to send replies from the Ministers to these inquiries, but they must have noth- ing in them of a military nature, and must be in plain writing, not in cipher. Another document raises once more the proposal of removing the Legations to Tientsin, pointing out that the number of rebellious people daily increases, and that something unforeseen is liable to happen. (It has already happened, however). Travel is temporary, residence is permanent, and an escort could be provided which would make the journey perfectly safe. China does not want war. What means are proposed to stop it? It would be better to settle matters at Tientsin, therefore the Ministers are asked to pack up, and name a fixed day in order that provision may be made for their travel. A messenger disguised as a fortune-teller was sent out with a repetition of the last batch of messages. The man that was sent to procure a number of " Peking Gazettes " has returned, having experienced some trouble and dan- ger, for which he was rewarded with fifty taels. Thursday, July 26. — Only a few stray shots in the night, which was very hot and was followed by a day of the same sort. The fortune-telling messenger did not DAYS OF WAITING 387 get away after all, being dissatisfied with some detail of his costume. At first his despatches were rolled up in the handle of an old umbrella, but this was criticized as too obvious, and he is now ruminating on a variation of dress for another attempt later. The Japanese Soldier-Information-Bureau (now ri- pened into "one of Tung Fu Hsiang's body-guard") to-day ofifers the very latest. There was another fight at Ho Hsi Wu yesterday, lasting till 3 p. m., twelve hun- dred Chinese being killed and wounded. The Chinese force included 5,000 soldiers and 3,000 Boxers. Li Ping Heng is said to have reached Peking, and the plan to deport the Ministers is thought to be his. In the after- noon the Ho Hsi Wu battle was revised so as to have begun at six o'clock, the Chinese being driven back ten li. By the same opportunity we learned that 4,800 troops had come in from the west, but they had left to join the Chinese army, with nine guns. Mr. Conger puts absolutely no faith in any of these reports, but many others give them a qualified credence, " so as to hit it if it were a deer, and miss it if it were a calf." During the night there were continual isolated rifle- shots to show that we are watched, but no replies came from us. Friday, July 27. — Much cooler last night. After breakfast there were rumours that a man had arrived from T'ung Chou, with the same man who has come so often before, bringing a report that the Chinese intend to make their last stand at T'ung Chou, and that if they should be defeated there, the Court would retire to Hsi An Fu, the distant capital of the province of Shensi, for which journey carts are said to have been already impressed. 388 CHINA IN CONVULSION The messenger who was to go out as a fortune-teller has made his second effort to get away and failed. The first time he was let down over the wall, met Chinese soldiers and pretended that he was sent to inspect their camp, but they told him that he could not get there with- out a pass. Then he pulled the rope, and was hauled up again upon the wall. The next time was at the east gate of the Fu, where he found himself surrounded by bar- ricades and became frightened. To-day at noon he tried the third time. He had pro- cured a Boxer uniform, but b.e could not make any use of it. Two soldiers were willing to help him out, one to be the security for the other. The latter remained within our surveillance, while the other took the mes- senger to a distance of several li. When he left the messenger, the latter handed him a small piece of a for- eign lady's hair-pin as a pledge, a token unknown to the security who had remained. Upon presenting this hair- pin certificate that the safe-conduct had been honourably executed, the two men were paid ten taels. The mes- senger was to have two hundred taels on his arrival at Tientsin, with his thirteen letters. (It is remarkable that all this elaborate preparation was worse than wasted. There was some little doubt about the trustworthiness of the man, but he was not seriously suspected. When he had got beyond the city he was advised by his brother either to kill himself outright, or go to the headquarters of Prince Chuang, and make a full confession, thus en- suring his own escape from punishment. This he did, and all the thirteen letters were sent out to the translators of the Tsung Li Yamen, who soon put them into circula- tion in the Imperial Court, where those of them that were not in cipher were doubtless much enjoyed — as so many of their predecessors had already been). DAYS OF WAITING 389 The Ministers yesterday had another meeting to con- sider what form of sound words to employ in replying to Prince Ch'ing and his " Others," so as to keep the matter in suspense as long as possible, with a minimum of definiteness — an aim for which diplomatic training is supposed to fit everyone perfectly. With regard to the matter of plain telegraphing, it was to-day replied that no Government would accept such telegrams, and no Ministers could send them, for they would not be accord- ing to usage, and would therefore defeat the very end proposed, which was to impart information as to the condition of the Ministers. Furthermore, it was impossible to affirm that the families of the Ministers are well, as they have suffered from the five weeks siege, and the lack of accustomed food. As for the omission of mili- tary information, this was easy to arrange, as the Ministers had no information in regard to the military situation, and therefore would be under no risk of sending that kind of intelligence. The Japanese soldier-spy has told them that Jung Lu has five regiments (liang-tzu) at the Pei T'ang, two at the Hou Men, or North gate of the Imperial city, three surrounding the Legations, while three more have gone to meet the foreign troops. Two hundred carts have been summoned to the Palace for the removal of the Court, and seventy more for Gen. Tung Fu Hsiang. A Chinese who had beaten his wife was to-day put into a small light cangue, or frame-work about his neck, near the bell-tower, the cangue bearing an inscription : " THIS MAN BEAT HIS WIFE AND IS NOW PUNISHED FOR IT." He is surrounded much of the time by a curious crowd, both of foreigners and Chinese, who regard it as a novelty ; indeed, there is reason for supposing that it is the first case in the history of the Chinese Empire — though 390 CHINA IN CONVULSION this is undoubtedly a rash statement to make about any- thing. There was a sensation during the afternoon on the arrival of red cards and a quantity of fruit, etc., for the Ministers, and a separate lot for Sir Robert Hart. The approximate census of the provision consignment is as follows: Melons, 150; cucumbers, 100; squashes, 100; flour, 1,000 catties; eggs, 500; ice, 24 blocks. In regard to the acceptance of these Imperial gifts there was, at this as at other times, wide divergence of opinion. Some refused to partake of them in any way, and wished them returned or declined. The controversy was sharply ar- gued on both sides, one of the Ministers being even me- morialized by a deputation of ladies against the acceptance of such treacherous bounty. There was, however, no diflference of opinion about the imprudence of using any of the flour, at least until it had first been tried upon a dog, — a suggestion presented by deputations of native Christains, which commended itself to all. It was put aside till urgently required, and had not been touched when the Relief Force arrived, but it was subsequently used with no apparent ill effects. These gifts were as before merely acknowledged by a receipt. A letter to the Ministers through Sir Claude from the Prince Ch'ing combination suggests that the number of converts in the Legation premises is reported to be large, and the space small. The feeling is now quiet abroad, and the converts may very well be sent out, and directed to pursue their avocations. There need be no doubt and fear. It is requested that the number of them be esti- mated, and a day fixed for sending them out. Sir Claude did not consider it worth his while to con- sult the Christians as to whclhcr they wished to facilitate DAYS OF WAITING 391 their own massacre by leaving their only place of refuge, and no reply to this artless corHmunication was returned. In the evenings there are frequent gatherings around the bell-tower for singing. Several songs have been composed bearing upon the siege, which have become very popular. The Russians sing their fine national air, the Germans " Die Wacht am Rhein," the British " God Save the Queen," and the Americans the " Star Spangled Banner," with great good fellowship. The messenger reports that a foreigner has been cap- tured by the Chinese, in a very forlorn and unkempt con- dition. We recognized him as an escaped Norwegian about whom we wrote on the 25th a note of inquiry. He is reported to have been taken to the headquarters of Jung Lu, who examined him and then sent him to the yamen of the prefect of Peking where he now is. Saturday, July 29th. — The two ponies killed this morn- ing were found to have been preempted by a parasite (filaria) in the flesh, making them unwholesome and dangerous. As the Chinese are never deterred by any trifles of this nature, the meat was accordingly sent over to the Fu, and another pony substituted for the foreigners. A sensation was caused by the arrival of the boy who was sent out on the night of July 4th, disguised as a beggar. He brings a letter to Sir Claude replying to his of the 4th which gave the details of the siege up to that time, and the number of killed and wounded, and which stated that Chinese troops had fired into the Lega- tion quarter continuously since June 20th, and that the Legations were hard pressed. Notice of the contents of the letter from Tientsin, which is written by the British Consul, is posted on the bulletin board as follows : " Tientsin, July 22nd. Your letter 392 CHINA IN CONVULSION July 4th. There are now 24,000 troops landed, and 19,000 here. Brig. Gen. Gaselee expected Taku to-mor- row. Russian troops are at Pei Ts'ang. Tientsin city is under foreign government, and Boxer power here is ex- ploded. There are plenty of troops on the way if you can keep yourself in food. Almost all the ladies have left Tientsin. D. R. Carles." The more this strange communication was con- templated, the more extraordinary it appeared. The one vital question to persons in a state of continuous siege is as to when relief may be expected, and on this point the letter not only gave no information whatever, but its phraseology was so ambiguous as to be unintelligible. Even the number of available troops was left a matter of debate, the whole culminating in the singular intelli- gence that " there are plenty of troops on the way if you can keep yourself in food." This led to the very natural inquiry, what would become of the troops if Sir Claude found that he could not keep himself in food? It was not until long afterward that it became dimly known that the benevolent purpose of the writer of the letter was to disguise the fact — which it was thought might be fatally depressing to the besieged — that at pres- ent there was nothing whatever in immediate prospect for their relief, and that they might as well adjust them- selves to these conditions. The messenger lad reported that he left the Red Bridge above Tientsin July 23rd, and slept at Yang Ts'un in a locomotive boiler. The railway bridge there was not de- stroyed. That day he saw only Chinese infantry — the main body being at Pei Ts'ang 8 miles west of Tientsin. He saw no Boxers there. The night of the 24th he spent near PIo Hsi Wu. That day he saw parties of Boxers in the villages, but none on the road. At Ma DAYS OF WAITING 393 T'ou the river was in flood, many boats moored, but few in motion. On the 27th he reached the Sha Kuo gate of Peking. The telegraph poles and wire along the river were all gone, the railway was everywhere torn up, and the rails either buried or used for making Boxer swords. The highway to Tientsin was in good condition. The crops everywhere looked well, and the villagers were attending to their farm work. There was a Boxer organization in every village. When the messenger left Tientsin the foreign troops had not advanced beyond the defence wall. All the ya- mens in Tientsin were occupied by foreign troops — chiefly Japanese. All Boxers had left the front at Tientsin, be- cause they were so badly punished in battle. The Chinese soldiers despised them because of the contrast between their previous extravagant pretensions to invulnerability and their present flight. The Japanese subsidized body-guard soldier of Tung Fu Hsiang informs them that there has been " a battle " at An P'ing on the 26th, when there were seven hundred Chinese killed, their army retreating on Ma T'ou. A miltary Harmony has now been constructed with a view to reconciling the dates given by the body-guard expert, with the evidently authentic information of the messenger lad, as follows: Summary of Battles under the patronage of the soldier of Gen. Tung Fu Hsiang : Ts'ai Ts'un battle, July 24th ; Ho Hsi Wu battle, July 25th ; An P'ing battle, July 26th ; Chinese army at Ma T'ou, July 27th. The messenger boy reports that he slept at Yang Ts'un on the 23rd, Ho Hsi Wu, 24th, Ma T'ou, 25th, Yii Chia Wei, 26th, Peking, 27th. There is thus no material contradiction between these reports. The word of the intended escape of the Empress Dow- 394 CHINA IN CONVULSION agcr is confirmed by four others, as well as the soldier- spy. Yesterday an experiment was made in getting rude cobbling done by one of the Christians, and watch-repair- ing by a Roman Catholic refugee. Sunday, July 29th. — Last night there seemed to be heavy firing about the Pei T'ang, or Northern Cathedral. Early in the morning the intellectually aberrant Nor- wegian w^as brought to our lines by a Chinese guard, looking much like a wreck. He had been manacled, and remarked that all the gold in the world would not induce him to repeat the experience. It gradually leaked out that he was asked a great number of leading questions by Jung Lu, and others, showing that they have a very correct knowledge of what is going on inside the Legation prem- ises. One inquiry w'as about the pits which were being dug, probably the bomb-proofs, and another as to the amount of damage done by the Chinese firing. The Nor- wegian gave the whole thing away by frankly stating that the Chinese fired too high, and as there w^as soon after a marked depression of the muzzles of their rifles (and of the spirits of the besieged to match) it was pro- posed to shoot the man as a deserter and a spy. Alore temperate counsels prevailed, however, and he w^as thence- forth kept in a state of surveillance until the siege termi- nated. An Austrian marine, who was acting as a cook in his Legation at the time it was abandoned, says that when the order was given to retreat, he was at work in the cook- house and knew nothing of it, supposing that the firing was due to the Boxers, and was unimportant. Hearing the bullets whizzing he went out to see, and was imme- diately struck with the total absence of any Austrians at the barricade; he was himself soon hit by a bullet that made a flesh-wound in both legs. Crawling back to the DAYS OF WAITING 395 guard-room he wrote his name in his own blood on the wall, explaining that circumstance, lest he should die unknown to the rest. Finding that the Chinese did not enter, he tore up his clothing, made rough bandages ,and crawled to the barricade at the Customs, pursued by bullets. It is now generally recognized by impartial ob- servers that the abandonment of the Austrian Legation at the time was utterly inexcusable. Air. Sugi the dispenser of Japanese-Chinese intelligence has taken a small house just outside the Japanese lines, opening on the Customs lane, where he receives messages and whence he dispatches couriers. His body-guard soldier to-day informs him that there are 25,000 Chinese troops at Ma T'ou awaiting the foreign army, which is 30,000 strong and retired yesterday on An P'ing. A messenger sent out to Chang P'ing Chou, north- west of Peking, met refugees from Tu Shih K'ou. There are said to be Russian troops coming hither by way of Kalgan, but whence is a dense mystery known only to the immortal gods. It is now affirmed that all but two of the gates of Peking are stopped with sand bags. During the afternoon the Chinese began to build a new barricade along the south side of the bridge which crosses the canal under the walls of the Imperial city. This was at once observed from the north stables, and reported. The Italian gun was sent up there to attack the work- men, and fired several shots, until the gunner (Italian) got a bullet through his hand. The method of the Chinese was very business-like and effective. There was no one in sight, but now and again a brick or two came around the corner, and then others were thrown on it, until the wall began to show up. Sometimes a box full of earth or bricks was suddenly pushed around adding to the fast growing barricade, but 396 CHINA IN CONVULSION still no one in sight. The shots fired at them did the Chinese no harm, and did not in the least impede their work. Before dark the new wall stretched along the whole bridge front, and during the night it was completed, very high and strong. ]\Iucli of their work elsewhere was done like this, and having practically unlimited ma- terials and labour, they were able to execute a great deal in a short time. Everyone sympathized with the Russian gentleman who remarked the next morning: "That new barricade makes me very uneasy." Another and rival messenger just in from Somewhere, tells us that Yang Ts'un was completely destroyed by foreign troops "two or three days ago," they being in steady advance. This makes necessary a revised Har- mony of the Peking Anabasis, involving great intellectual labour and highly uncertain results. A few " Peking Gazettes " have been secured, but there is nothing of commanding interest. The issue of July 23rd contains a long joint memorial from Yii Lu, the Governor General of Chihli, and Gen. Sung Ch'ing, giving confused details of the attacks upon the Foreign Settle- ment from the 8th to the nth of July. The " Gazette " of July nth also had a long memorial of the same de- scription from the Governor General. The Chinese losses are admitted to have been severe, but then those of the enemy were " not small." The Empress Dowager is com- forted by information that the Arsenal at the Treaty Temple is not so injured that it can not be repaired. The tone of the later memorial, which was sent two days be- fore the last and successful foreign attack, is much less hopeful, giving details of the numerous foreign forces present and prospective, and each of them makes it plain that " large reenforcements " will be needed. A paragraph from the former memorial is interesting DAYS OF WAITING 397 as illustrating Chinese strategy under depressing con- ditions : " I have consulted," Yii Lu says, " with Gen. Ma Yii K'un, about the mode of continuing the warfare, and we have come to the conclusion that in the first place it is necessary to force the foreign troops to retire from the foreign settlement of Tientsin, and then to at- tack them at Taku. I have consulted on this subject several times with Generals Ma, Nieh, and Lo, and we hope to be able to take the Taku Forts." A Rescript ap- proves this mode of action (as well it might, considering that it is the Report of a Committee of Civil and Military Rats as to the best Alethod of Putting a Large Bell on several Foreign Cats now in possession of Our Attic). In a memorandum by the same Governor published at the same time, he informs the Throne that " Boxers of different places in my province have at dift'erent times arrived at Tientsin, and taken part in the battles. At present there is a Boxer-chief of the district of Ching Hai who has come with 5,000 Boxers, and presented himself to me. Seeing that he is a man physically strong and mentally capable, 1 have ordered him to choose a resi- dence and await instructions. I have also directed that fire-arms and provisions should be distributed to his fol- lowers. In case of any merit on his part in future, a special report will be made by me on the subject." A Decree announces that as a reward for the nvmierous vir- tues of Jung Lu, he is to be allowed to ride with two bearers through the Forbidden City (a privilege which he was unable to retain for any length of time. ) Monday, July 30th. — The new barricade at the head of the canal commands the whole roadway on each side down to the city wall, and although passage is forbidden, there are many shots fired at the pertinacious Chinese who will take the more dangerous route, instead of the 398 CHINA IN CONVULSION perfectly safe one through the tunnel. A Roman Catholic was killed this morning outside one of the houses near the Fu, along the canal road. A Cossack who was suf- fering from malaria took this morning a twelfth of a grain of strychnine by mistake for quinia, but he was saved from the toxic effects with some difficulty. It is a great strain on the human understanding to digest, and especially to coordinate the incessant contra- dictory reports which come from every quarter. Here is to-day's budget : Col. Shiba's messenger says that he left Chang Chia Wan (three miles from T'ung Chou) at eight o'clock on the evening of the 29th. There had been desultory fighting there from 3 to 8 p. m., and many Chinese were killed. The foreign troops had advanced on j\Ia T"ou on the morning of the 29th, the Chinese fall- ing back upon Chang Chia Wan, with about 10,000 men. in the afternoon a candy-seller from T'ung Chou, who had been sent out as a spy, returns with the story that there are foreign troops at Yang Ts'un but none this side. As this is not the news we wish, the man is tied up, until he can revise it! He also informs us that Li Hung Chang is here, and has been given three days to make peace. A courier was sent off early this morning with eleven letters, and during the day it was reported that two who had been dispatched yesterday by Mr. Sugi had returned. One of them has brought word of a battle just south of Ma T'ou, on the 29th (or 28th.) These men say that they saw a man who had been in the Roman Catholic village of Chia Chia T'uan, eight miles from T'ung Chou, who reports that foreign troops have come there to relieve the Catholics, who have been standing a little siege of their own. There are wild and contradictory accounts of what is seen from the Anicrican position on 'the wall, looking DAYS OF WAITING 399 down into the southern city, singular movements of carts, horses, coohes, etc., in great confusion. It is said that Sir Robert has received a ciplicr telegram of nearly an hun- dred words for which he has no cipher key — so that it is unintelligible. A reply was sent to-day to the letter suggesting that the Chinese Christians might return to their " avoca- tions," now that the country is quiet. The Ministers mention that in view of this statement they were sur- prised at the sound of heavy firing at the Pei T'ang, which was evidently being attacked. The barricade at the north canal bridge is referred to, and the fact that a continuous fire is kept up from there, and also against the French and the Russian Legations. There is a strange contra- diction between the above professions and the actions described. There are European officers and soldiers at the Pei T'ang. If such attacks as these can not be pre- vented, it is difficult to see how similar assaults could be prevented on a journey to Tientsin. Explanations are wanted in regard to this matter, before discussing the question of transport. Prince Ch'ing and his " Others " in reply informed the Ministers that, in the preparation for the journey to Tien- tsin, the Chinese Government would of course provide carts and chairs for going to T'ung Chou. Brig. Gen, Sun Han Lien with a picked force, and also some of Gen. Sung Ming's troops would be the escort ; notice a few days in advance is requested. In reply to the letter just quoted it is explained that the attack on the Pei T'ang was due to the converts going out in all directions to plunder for food. The people joined the crowd of Box- ers, and made continuous attacks. A Decree has now been issued that if the converts do not come out to plunder they are to be protected and not attacked. The troops 400 CHINA IN CONVULSION of Gen. Tung were building a road across the canal, and the Legation mistook it for a barricade, whicli was a mis- understanding on both sides. With regard to the pro- posed departure, it is not an easy matter to adjust. It was only after much arrangement that it was possible to give guarantees against mischance. The matter is one of the greatest importance, and we could not purposely deceive. We ask you not to be over anxious, but to come to a decision. Tuesday, July 31. — During the night, there was what one of the British marines called " a tidy bit of firing " down the canal. The Chinese complain that we fired first on them as they were working on their " road " (barri- cade), which is true. Despite their promise of cessation of hostilities, the Chinese do not suspend their firing any- where. The supply of eggs has never been large, and now that the Chinese have beheaded a man who was bringing supplies for sale, and the French guards have shot an egg-seller, there are not likely to be any more. The Chinese soldier-spy brings to the Japanese his usual tale of military news. The foreign army advanced from Ma T'ou fighting, arriving at Chang Chia Wan late on the afternoon of the 30th. The Chinese army is eight miles south of T'ung Chou. The " Ch'ang A.n Vic- torious Army " of fifteen regiments, which left Ilsian Fu June 27th, is expected at the Southern Hunting Park to-day, and is to make a forced march to T'ung Chou. Tt is thought that there may be 4,000 or 5,000 of them, and as they are not foreign drilled they will add but little to the Chinese strength in a military way. The five great armies hitherto controlled by Jung Lu are said to have been turned over to Li Ping Hcng, who had arrived from the south a few days before in obedi- ence to a special summons, and whose influence was at once DAYS OF WAITING 401 thrown into the scale in favour of further hostilities, so that they began to be more pronounced in every direc- tion. Tung Fu Hsiang has leave of absence for ten days. Li Hung Chang (who is already in Peking) will arrive at Tientsin in two days. A dispatch from Chi Nan Fu reports that Yuan Shih K'ai, the Governor of Shantung has " revolted and joined the Germans ! " A party of Mr. Gamewell's men who were at work on the fortifications, were to-day called off to make a " brick-proof " for the north-west corner of the Han- lin, where bricks and bottles are coming over almost every minute, and " make the men nervous." The Hague Peace Conference should have included these weapons in its condemnation, along with the " dum-dum bullet." A barricade has been built in the night across the north side of the bridge at the Legation Street. At present the bridge is very unsafe, owing to the perpetual sniping from the Chinese barricade at the upper bridge. XXII THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK WEDNESDAY, August i.— During the night the mentally unbalanced Norwegian broke away from the Japanese Legation where he was under restraint, and went to the Hotel de Pekin. The proprietor brought him to the British Legation at 2 a. m., whence he was sent back to be put under watch again. The barricade at the south gate of this Legation, to pro- tect the crossing of the canal, was finished last night, and we can now breathe a little more freely, but still there is a certain (or rather a very uncertain) amount of danger in going to Legation Street by this route. The Committee on Food Supply have been very active in getting together everything which could be used, and especially in the steady and most important work of get- ting the grinding done properly and in season. LTpon this the continued existence of all the besieged depends. As the duration of the siege is so uncertain and the matter is one of vital importance, careful stock-taking has been had as to the visible food supply. There seem to be about 600 pounds only of white rice, 11,500 of the " yel- low," or olfl rice, and 34,000 pounds of wheat. If all other supplies were unavailable, it is estimated that the public stores coulfl furnish one thousand persons each a pound of wheat and one third of a pound of rice each day, for five weeks. There are about thirty available ponies re- 402 THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 403 maining, which at the rate of three every two days would last twenty days. A visit to the wall shows a vast improvement in the defences there as compared with the period when the first effort was made to build a worm fence of bricks to the top of the ramp. Now this has been completed, and is perfectly safe from shots in any direction. Each of the barricades on the wall is built up very high and strong, and could not be rushed by the Chinese even if they had the disposition, which since the night of July 3rd they have never exhibited. Between the two terminal barri- cades there is a long path on the wall, protected all the way so as to be entirely safe for passage. The western barricade is held conjointly by Americans and Russians. Another letter from " Prince Ch'ing and Others " has been received, continuing the subject of the previous cor- respondence. It says that last night some converts again fired on the posts of the Government troops, wounding two of them. If the converts are not amenable to control, it is to be feared that they will produce a great dis- aster, and ruin the whole situation. The strictest re- straint is requested so as to avoid further hostilities. We hear that the converts have collected in great numbers, and that they do not wish the Envoys to leave Peking, their hope being that they will thus have a perpetual support. The Foreign Ministers ought not to fall into this trap. A reply is requested within two or three days, as to the date of the Minister's departure. It seemed best to the Ministers to respond as if they were arguing with rational beings, as there was no cer- tainty into whose hands the correspondence might fall. Accordingly a reply was sent to this nonsense the follow- ing day. The Legation is defended, not by " converts," but by guards. All day and all night there had been shoot- 404 CHINA IN CONVULSION ing from the new barricade on the north bridge, and not a shot was fired in reply. It is difficult to see why this is kept lip. The Foreign Envoys are in great difficulty about the plan to go to Tientsin on a certain day. What security could the Legations have that the firing would not begin en route? It is learned from the telegrams received through the Tsung Li Yamen to-day, that Mr. Conger's telegram of July 17th saving that the Legations had been bombarded by shot and shell for a month, had made a great sensa- tion, and that relief would be sent. It is singular that both the tidings of our distress and the intelligence of the efTect produced by the announcement of it, should each have been transmitted through the Tsung Li Yamen. A Shantung Christian named Chang, who was dispatched to Tientsin on the i8th of July, returned to-day with a reply to the Japanese Baron Nishi from Gen. Fukushima, say- ing that there had been unexpected difficulties in the land- ing of the 5th Japanese Division, but that most of the troops had already reached Tientsin and the remainder were constantly arriving. The messages sent out from Peking had made the situation there universally known, and many councils had been held as to dispatch of a relief expedition. It was expected that within two or three days from the date of writing, which was July 26th, an expedition would start. Other letters brought the same or similar intelligence, which makes it clear that the reports which have been coming in so frequently and so regularly from the heavily subsidized body-guard soldier-spy of Gen. Tung Fu Hsiang's are deficient in the element of coordination with other facts of contemporaneous history — in other words they are pure fabrications, which have served their one purpose of holding the attention of the besieged, au'l THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 405 which have kept them studying the map and making esti- mates of the probable present situation of " our troops." Those who had all along discredited the military narra- tives, were enabled to say with much and iterative em- phasis : " I told you so." This last messenger, although he had been promised a large reward for executing the commission which he had so well fulfilled, said that he did not care for money, would not accept it, and only insisted that he should be furnished with a return packet of letters as soon as pos- sible. He explained that he was risking his life for the general good, and not for private gain. To the Japanese, as well as to some others, he appeared to be a very eccen- tric individual. Within two hours he was sent off again on the coveted errand. A telegram to Sir Robert Hart mentions the results of the fighting at Tientsin July 15th, and states that sub- sequent to it arrangements for the relief were being ha- stened, and inquiries whether the Chinese Government is protecting us and supplying us with provisions, etc. This last sentence exposes the " true inwardness " of the water-melons, egg-plants, and cucumbers, all of which had been sent in not for the purpose of serving as food, but as padding for the dispatches of the Chinese Ministers to various Western Powers, all of whom were now assured that the Government was doing its utmost to make the besieged experience ideal happiness, so that their lot was upon the whole an enviable one. It is reported from Japanese sources that their losses in killed have been ten, (including the Chancellor of the Legation) of whom five are soldiers, three Legation of- ficials, one an officer, and one a civilian. There have been seven badly wounded, and thirty slightly so. The dead are buried in a special spot in the grounds of the Su Wang 4o6 CHINA IN CONVULSION Fu, and when the siege is over the bodies are to be taken up, cremated, and the ashes transferred to Japan. During the siege a Htter of kittens has made its ap- pearance, two of which have been adopted by the ma- rines in the main gate, have had coloured ribbons put on their necks, and sleep serenely in the loop-holes ! Thursday, August 2. — One of the Continental Min- isters who was for a long time very timid and pessimis- tic, remarked in our gate-house this morning: "Well, we are going to get out of this." He seems to think the thermometer is rising. The two soldier-spies returned to-day, and one gave an account of the retreats of their phantom foreign armies as far as Yang Ts'un ! He was somewhat alarmed at finding his fictions rated at their true value. Instead of falling into a passion, as the unskilful Occidental would have been likely to do, his shrewd Japanese employer smiled upon him, and remarked that he was aware all along that the tales were a tissue of fabrications, inso- much that he had never even mentioned them to Col. Shiba at all! Considering that each day a careful ab- stract of the reports had been drawn up, illustrated with maps, and the whole at once posted on the bulletin board, this was almost as robust a falsehood as the marching and retreats of the imaginary forces from Tientsin. In- stead of being dismissed, the soldier was told that he would still be paid, if he would hereafter bring in reports which were somewhat more veracious than any of those which had preceded, but from this date he ceased to be quoted by any one as a military authority. A man who was sent out for the purpose, returned to- day with a fresh lot of " Peking Gazettes," which con- tain some crumbs of news. On the 28th of July a memorial appears from Yii Hsien^ THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 407 the Governor of Shansi, who reports that the district magistrate of the capital of his province, T'ai Yuan Fu, had sent word of a Boxer gathering which invaded his yamen and had asked for troops. Upon investigation the Governor learned that the crowd was a small one, and that only one man had come to the yamen demanding food, and he was not a Boxer. He recommends the dis- missal of the magistrate. (There is probably much more in this little incident than appears upon the surface, and it not improbably signifies that Yu Hsien was engaged in inculcating the teaching among his subordinates that Boxers were not to be interfered with, and that any official guilty of obstructing them would be promptly cashiered.) The same Governor mentions that he was about dis- patching four " camps " of infantry and two hundred cav- alry to Peking, in obedience to a Decree, but that in ac- cordance with a later Decree their destination was changed to Kalgan. Fie also reports that he is about to raise fresh regiments. (It was learned later that he marched at the head of his troops for the relief of Peking as far as Huai Lu Hsien, at the entrance to the Ku Kuan pass leading from Chihli to Shansi. Learning that Peking had already been taken, he returned to his own capital, where he later welcomed the Empress Dowager on her flight to the remote west.) v A Decree of which the date is uncertain, but apparently of July 28th, states that Hsu Ching Ch'eng and Yuan Chang, two of the Ministers of the Tsung Li Yamen, had been denounced as of bad reputation, and as given to serving their private ends in dealing with foreign affairs. At an Imperial audience they have made wild proposals, and used the most improper language. Their suggestions have tended to introduce divisions (i. e. be- 4o8 CHINA IN CONVULSION tween the Empress Dowager and the Emperor) and have been extremely wanting in respect. In order to inspire awe in the minds of other officers they are both con- demned to immediate execution. (The above two officials were sacrificed to the fury of the Empress, apparently at the instigation of Li Ping Heng immediately upon his arrival at Peking. PIsii Ching Ch'eng was the Chinese President of the new Imperial University, had been Chinese Minister to Russia, and was an enlightened and liberal man. At an Imperial audience of unusual impor- tance the Emperor reached over the dais upon which he was seated, grasped the sleeve of Hsii, and exclaimed, " If China is to fight the World, will it not put an end to China?" At this the numerous Manchu nobles present manifested great indignation, and someone cried out that Hsu had laid hands upon His Majesty, and began to re- vile him openly. Hie retired as soon as he was able, very much frightened. The same day Li Ping Heng is re- ported to have reached the Capital, and the following day both Hsij and Yuan were executed. Their real crime was in daring to advise against the insane course of the Empress Dowager, as urged by Prince Tuan and the rest, in endeavouring to find some way of adjusting the growing difficulties, in alleged truckling to foreigners by visiting the Legations secretly, and in taking up the body of the German Minister when it lay exposed in the street, and encoffining it.) It was at once perceived that this was a most ominous proceeding, displaying the temper of the actual rulers of China as nothing had yet done. Yesterday preparations were made for extending our line to the southwest of the British Legation, by taking in the ruins of burned buildings near the Mongol Mar- ket, and making barricades of them witli a view to keep- ing the Chinese at a greater distance. This was done to- THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 409 day by Mr. Gamewell and his men, under Lieutenant von Strauch of the Customs (formerly of the German Army), a brave and skillful officer, who threw himself into the new movement with the greatest zeal. The work was designedly begun at a time when the Chinese sol- diers are usually torpid (taking their opium and resting after the fatigues of their early rising), and the work was for a long time not even discovered. It has enlarged the area under our control by a space perhaps fifty yards wide to the west, and stretching the entire distance from the Carriage Park on the north to the Russian Legation on the south. Many court-yards were crossed, many houses perforated, and a final barricade made of flag- stones in the one furthest west. When at last the Chinese found out what was going on, they made a par- ticularly spiteful attack, piercing a wooden door, and wounding a Chinese, but notwithstanding their utmost efforts they were never able to recover any part of this tract and hold it against the defence. Toward evening another courier arrived, — the one who took the messages July 23rd, conveying information of the safety of the Legation and the besieged up to that time. The greatest excitement prevailed, both before the posting of the news (which happened almost immedi- ately, as the letters were mostly for the American Minis- ter) and afterwards. The cipher dispatches and letters gave the dates of the military movements for the relief of Tientsin, and information as to the probable order of advance by columns of the relieving force, which did not, however, correspond to the actual movements later on. One of the letters contained the judicious advice to "Hold on by all means," and another said: "Keep heart, aid coming early. Troops pouring in." The letter of Consul Ragsdale to Mr. Conger, although 4IO CHINA IN CONVULSION very brief, was of special interest to Americans for the welcome glimpse into the doings and feelings of their distant countrymen: "July 28th. Tlad lost all hope of seeing you again. Prospect now brighter. We had thirty days' shelling here, nine days siege, thought that bad enough. Scarcely a house escaped damage. Excitement at home intense, of course. Our prayers and hope are for your safety and speedy rescue. Advance of troops to-morrow probable. McKinley and Roosevelt nomi- nated. Also Bryan — Vice-President unknown." A letter from Lieut. Col. Mallory, 41st U. S. Infantry, said: "A relief column of 10,000 is on the point of starting for Peking. INIore to follow. God grant they may be in lime." Under date of August 30th, Maj. Gen. Chafifee announced that he had just arrived at Tientsin. Some of the other letters mentioned that attacks had been made by Boxers upon Chinese Christians in the dis- tricts of Tsun Hua Chou, Shan Hai Kuan, and many other places. That the Russians had been fighting near Chin Chou in Manchuria, and that Newchwang was much disturbed, as all Manchuria seemed to be rising against foreigners, and the hands of the Russians were likely to be full there. The Yangtze valley was said to be also very unquiet, although the two Governors Gen- eral, Liu K'un Yi, at Nanking, and Chang Chih Tung, at Wu Ch'ang, were doing their best to keep order. Li Hung Chang was still at Shanghai, and his coming north to Tientsin considered doubtful. Tientsin was governed by a joint foreign Commission. Germany and the United States were each to send 15,000 men, and Italy 5,000. Tientsin was full of soldiers, with more constantly arriv- ing. The railway was running between Tientsin and Tongku. Many ladies and children had been sent to the THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 411 United States on the transport " Logan." All property at the sea-side resort at Pei Tai Ho was destroyed. For some time it has been known that there was a stock of Chinese sanishu, or strong wine somewhere, but recently it was traced to a shop in Legation Street, where they deal in condiments, sauce, etc. Mr. Tewksbury went there with some men on behalf of the General Com- mittee, and found a sick man asleep above a large wine- jar. He was forced to remove, and the fluid was all poured into the street, which was highly perfumed, to the value of many taels. The jar had been sealed up once before, but the thirsty marines had broken through the seal. The messenger who brought the welcome news of prospective relief says that, when he reached T'ung Chou, instead of taking the usual route he went east, spending one night on the way with Chinese soldiers. On his return he had his letters sewed into his hat. He left Tientsin by the west gate, making a wide detour so as not to excite suspicion, yet got through in very good time. Friday, August 3. — The Committee on Confiscated Goods is busy this morning going through the houses which are within the territory captured yesterday, and a great deal of stuff was found which will be of service. There is a fire in the Imperial City, but it is impossible to determine where it is. The following has just been posted : Census of the British Legation, August ist. Soldiers, British and others 73 General Hospital, wounded 40 412 CHINA IN CONVULSION Legation residents : Foreign men 191 Foreign women 147 Foreign children 76 414 Legation residents: Chinese men 180 Chinese women 107 Chinese children .. .¦ 69 356 Total 883 This afternoon the Yamen sent to Sir Claude, an un- dated cipher telegram from Lord Salisbury, in which he complains of having heard nothing since July 4th. The Ministers are trying the experiment of sending cipher telegrams through the Yamen. The latter send notice of the appointment of Jung Lu to escort the Ministers to Tientsin, a piece of impudence which even for the Chinese Government is nothing less than colossal, con- sidering that he has spent the whole summer in trying to kill everyone in the Legations. In reply to Sir Claude's remonstrances about the in- cessant firing upon us, the Yamen blandly remarks that it was the result of a misunderstanding, and that it is more or less on the same footing as the morning and evening bells of the temple priests. " It is really hardly worth a smile." In confirmation of the morning-and- evening-bell theory, it is mentioned that the wife of one of the Ministers has been heard to say that, now there is so little firing of rifles and no shelling, she cannot sleep ! Over at the Fu some Chinese coolies have brought THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 413 rifles and ammunition for sale at one of the out-posts. (This circumstance probably gave rise to the widely cir- culated story that during the siege a part of the ammuni- tion was bought from the attacking Chinese troops. It was, however, stated as a fact that a Japanese paid one of the Chinese Imperial Guard two dollars for 140 rounds of ammunition, and that within a quarter of an hour the two men were diligently attacking each other!) Saturday, Aug. 4. — There was much less firing last night than before. The Nordenfelt gun was put up on a high platform at the angle of the newly annexed territory behind the house of the Chinese Secretary, and has a very dissuasive appearance. " Oh, he's little, but he's wise. He's a terror for his size." The Ministers had a meeting and agreed to ask the Yamen to send mutton and other supplies for the ladies and the sick, but the action was not unanimous, and some of the besieged protest against it vigourously, as a dis- play of uncalled for weakness. A letter was received from the Yamen, informing the Ministers that the various Foreign Offices of the different Nations concerned wish the Foreign Ministers escorted out of Peking, and de- siring a speedy reply. Two Russians who were at work in the Russo-Chinese Bank incautiously exposed them- selves too much, and were wounded this afternoon, ap- parently by the same bullet. One of them died during the night. At an adjourned meeting of the Ministers during the afternoon, the draft of a letter in reply to the Yamen was agreed upon, to be sent to-morrow. The general pur- port is that the Ministers must be allowed to communicate with their Governments direct, and that they can not re- ceive instructions through the medium of the Tsimg Li 414 CHINA IN CONVULSION Yamen. Foreign Ministers in China must have the same rights that Chinese Ministers at foreign courts at pres- ent enjoy. With this letter were sent cipher telegrams to the vari- ous governments from the Ministers, asking for instruc- tions as to leaving, in compliance with the Yamen's de- mand. The object of this is to gain time, as the replies at quickest can not be received in less than ten days or two weeks, since the telegrams have to be sent, according to the Yamen's letter of to-day, by courier to Chi Nan Fu, the capital of Shantung. It is understood that at least one of the Ministers incorporated in his dispatch a hint of the object of raising the inquiry at all, with the suggestion that there need be no haste as to a reply. In the interim the Yamen was told that, when these replies are to hand, the Ministers will be in a position to arrange the matter of leaving or remaining — (a prediction and promise which was more than fulfilled.) Yesterday the Ministers had for the first time tried the experiment of all sending cipher dispatches to their re- spective governments, to be forwarded by the Yamen, and it is understood that as they have not been returned they have been forwarded. There is a species of censorship established over out- going telegrams, to the deep indignation of some of the correspondents who do not wish their opinions revised by a committee. At the Su Wang Fu soldiers without arms crowd around our sentries in a very friendly way, as the Imperial Edict arranging for the departure of the Ministers is well known and we are supposed to be soon leaving. A soldier who has been useful in getting copies of the " Peking Gazettes " for us, took occasion to observe : " You are THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 415 alive ; we are dead. The foreign army is on the way, and has driven back Gen. Sung Ch'ing, 140 h from here." Rumours among the Chinese say that among the for- eign troops there are many " blacks," who are supposed to be from India. Sunday, August 5. — A report has got around that the Chinese are intending, if the Foreign Ministers do not accede to the proposition to go at once to Tientsin, to attack the Legations in earnest. After nearly three weeks of comparative quiet, with steady preparation under the invariable persistence of Mr. Gamewell, there are many who are quite of the mind of the German soldier who exclaimed on hearing the rumour : " Let them come on!" (Lassen sie kommen.) There was a hard rain last night for two hours or more, and everything is fresh to-day. No walls have fallen in the Mongol Market addition to our territory, as was feared. This is the first Sunday when no work has been done at all. Several Chinese children died yesterday and to-day. The Roman Catholics are very short of food, — for what reason is not quite clear, as the total stock appears to be good. In the afternoon there were letters from the Yamen again, one of which conveyed expres- sions of sympathy to the Italian Legation on the death of King Humbert (of which they had not previously heard.) The news was communicated by Lo Feng Lo, who is accredited both to Great Britain and to Italy. Other letters to other Ministers communicated inquiries as to health, etc. The following letter was sent out to-night to the Allied forces, and it was through the use of this information that the British and American troops entered Peking so early. 4i6 CHINA IN CONVULSION COPY OF MESSAGE SENT TO COMMANDER ALLIED FORCES: August 5, 1900. " I enclose map showing Manchu City soutli wall, with lines in rear, including Legations now occupied by us. Our position on wall is strongly held, is about 300 yards long, and equally distant from the two city gates, and is indi- cated by flags, Russian and American at each end. The left of the position (American) covers the water gate, an opening under the wall, about forty feet wide and twenty feet high, and through which any number of men could pass without difficulty; arriving within our lines, could take one or both the gates by assault, following down the wall and in the rear from the street. 500 men for each gate would be a sufificient force, especially if assisted by artillery fire from outside. The wall of the Chinese City near the south gate is in bad condition, and far easier to take than any part of the Manchu city wall, which is thicker and higher. The ground from Chinese City south gate up to houses in that city is open. After shelling, an advance up the main street towards the middle gate, then turning to the right in the direction of the water gate, ought to be made without any very great diffi- culty. I deem this the safest and most feasible entrance into Peking. See Slater's Code, using Ragsdale's code number." (Signed) Claude MacDonald. Monday, August 6. — Between two and three o'clock this morning there was a furious rifle attack, such as we have not had for a long time, beginning with the Mongol Market region and apparently going all around. It con- tinued for perhaps half an hour. It may have been stirred up by the steady work on the barricades in the new terri- BUDDHIST TEMPLE AND MODERN TRAM CAR WATER GATE, PEKING, THROUGH WHICH ALLIES ENTERED THE RENEWAL OF THE ATTACK 417 tory, which are being strengthened all the time. A Chinese barricade fell down at the French Legation, and the Chinese had the presence of mind to set up a great yell- ing, beating of drums, etc., to distract attention. There was much alarm at some of the houses in the British Legation, and in one of them the second story was aban- doned for the night as unsafe. The alley through which the egg-sellers and the pur- veyors of news have made their entrance into the Japanese lines, has been walled up, so that we are again isolated from the world, except for the driblets of news — largely of an obituary nature — filtering through the Tsung Li Yamen. During the afternoon another communication arrived from that august body, in reply to those sent yes- terday referring to the various home Governments the question of return to Tientsin. The Yamen has forwarded the dispatches, thus recognizing the right of the Ministers to ask for instructions. They also explain the attack of last night by saying that some foreigner made a great noise, so that the Chinese soldiers thought they were being attacked, and replied in kind ! Tuesday, August 7. — The night was much more quiet than the previous one, though there were some shots. To-day is the " Japanese Decoration Day " (the thirteenth day of the Chinese seventh moon), the equivalent of our " All Souls " festival, and they have put flowers upon the eight graves of their dead, — the touch of nature which makes the whole world kin. The sand bags in the windows of the hospital are all giving way, and are to be taken down and used to fill up the unsightly holes in the tennis-court where earth has been removed. Despite the general quiet there is firing near the Mongol Market, and a Japanese was brought in from the Fu wounded in the leg. A telegram 4i8 CHINA IN CONVULSION was received to-day from the Yamen with condolence for the death of the Duke of Edinburgh, of which there was no previous information. To-day after elaborate preparation and many emenda- tions, the Register of the Siege in Peking is published, and put upon the bulletin board. It was originally headed " Commander in Chief, Sir Claude MacDonald," which is understood to have been in accordance with a vote of the Ministers, asking the British Minister, in view of his twenty-four years of service in the British Army, to take the command, which no one else was willing to do. This was the more appropriate, as it was agreed that in the last extremity the British Legation was to be the place for a final stand. Now that the siege seemed nearly over and the unremitting exertions of Sir Claude for the gen- eral welfare were about to end, it appeared somewhat un- gracious to assert, as some of the Continentals seemed disposed to do, that he was not their " Commander in Chief." Some final appeal in a military way there must of necessity be, and aside from the previous agreement of the Ministers made in the presence of a deadly peril, no more competent or more suitable candidate than Sir Claude was either available or requisite. In the evening Mr. Squiers prepared a long message to be sent out to the troops, recommending the Southern City as the best point of attack, as being less defended, more easily entered, affording a shorter distance, largely through open spaces where there can be no loop-holing buildings, and having the water-gate accessible. Other letters of this kind have been sent also to the British detachment. XXIII THE RELIEF WEDNESDAY, August 8.— During the night there was considerable firing in the region of the Mongol Market, a few Chinese creeping through the ruins and throwing bricks at the guard on the high platform where the Nordenfelt gun is placed. It was this that gave rise to the story that this post was " attacked." It is impossible for all to look at the matter in the same light, and there are some who are fully per- suaded that this addition to our territory, instead of being (as it really is) a source of additional security, is rather the reverse. There was an auction yesterday of much confiscated property, clothing, furniture, etc., bringing several hun- dred dollars to a relief fund for the Christians. A French marine accidentally shot another this morning through the lungs, the man dying not long after. Nothing but the grossest and most inexcusable carelessness could have occasioned such a calamity. Work was begun outside the main gate of the British Legation on a trench leading to the canal, where a platform is to be put up for the Austrian gun to command the bed of the canal, down which it would at any time have been possible for a bold and determined enemy to have made an effective rush in the night. On the west side of the Hanlin compound a countermine is being made for the Chinese mine, which has not, however, been discovered, 419 420 CHINA IN CONVULSION A meeting of the Alinisters was held to-day, and strict economy was enjoined in the use of food. It was agreed to say to the Yamen that in view of the kindly feehng manifested by them in the communication of tidings of the death of kings and princes, it would be greatly ap- preciated if like kindness should be shown to the women and children here, in arranging for the furnishing of eggs and vegetables. They were also to be asked to take over more than an hundred neutrals who are still within our lines. In the afternoon a circular dispatch came from the Yamen to announce that yesterday Li Hung Chang had been appointed a High Commissioner to arrange terms of peace between China and the Powers, with the Gov- ernments of which he is to correspond telegraphically. One of Col. Shiba's informants says that there are at present only about 2,500 Chinese troops in Peking — the rest having gone to confront the foreign army. He also reports that another body of 50,000 foreign soldiers has been landed at Taku. It is thought that the appointment of Li as Peace Commissioner may mean that there has been a decisive victory at Yang Ts'un, but one of the Ministers would not be surprised if the expedition had not yet started, owing to difficulties of transportation, etc. Sir Claude replied to the letter conveWng sympathy for the death of the Duke of Edinburgh, remarking that notwithstanding these agreeable amenities it still remained true that he could not put his head out of his own Lega- tion without the danger of being shot ! This is the fiftieth day of the siege. Thursday, August 9. — During the night there was a great deal of firing from the north bridge, not only down the canal but on the British Legation. It is rumoured that there has been a general change of the Chinese THE RELIEF 421 soldiers attacking us, the Manchus taking the place of the Chinese, who have been sent out to meet the troops of the enemy. Bullets rattled through the Legation grounds, and during the night a groan was heard, but no out-cry. In the morning it was found that a Chinese Roman Catholic " Brother," whose head was turned to the north and who was asleep on the outer pavilion, had been wounded in the chest by a glancing bullet which perforated his clothing and made a flesh wound near the ensifonn cartilage. The man was perhaps stunned, for he did not even wake up, and when he did it was to find himself bloody. Specimens of the " food " eaten in the Fu have been brought over on a tray, consisting of a mixture of chaff, sorghum seeds, wheat, and the leaves of plants and trees, made into flat cakes. A request has been sent that those who can do so will go out and shoot dogs and cats for the Chinese, to serve as food. There has been a recount of the Catholics in the Fu. The census is 755 women and 546 children, a total of 1,301. The men, who were absent, number 412, making a grand total of 1,713. Friday, August 10. — About three o'clock this morning there was a sudden and very violent attack begun in the Mongol Market, running all around the circle. It lasted only about fifteen minutes, but during that time it was as vicious as anything we have had. At the signal of a rocket the firing suddenly ceased. Before it began, there had been a Boxer killed and another wounded west of the Market. There was also much shooting down the canal. In the morning an aged Catholic priest slowly walked the entire distance from the Legation Street bridge to the entrance of the Fu, against many remonstrances, attract- ing at once the fire from the north bridge. There were 422 CHINA IN CONVULSION twenty-six shots directed at him, but not one struck him. Yesterday some one counted thirty shots fired at a Httlc girl, and an old woman gathering greens became a speedy target. Some Chinese do not seem in the least con- cerned when fired at, while others are terribly alarmed. One of the Chinese was cautioned not to go into danger, but would not heed, when a bullet pierced his clothing over the abdomen. From that time he became more pru- dent, but his caution assumed the form of a thick wad of cloth over the place where he had been hit, assuming that the next bullet would strike in precisely the same spot! One of the diplomatic military authorities says that there were shots enough fired into the British Legation last night to have killed, if properly directed, every person in it. The intention certainly was not lacking, but the execution was imperfect. The trouble began in a corner of the Mongol Market where a bag of powder was found yesterday. Designs are invited for a Siege medal to be struck in commemoration of the experience. One of the mottoes suggested has been the words " Mene, mene, tekel, up- harsin," but one of the besieged was heard to object to this on the plausible ground that " not everybody knows Latin." The total of several auction sales thus far comes to $68 1. About three in the afternoon there were rumours of the arrival of a messenger from the troops en route to Peking. There was a letter from the Japanese Lieut. General Fukushima, dated near Ts'ai Ts'un on the 8th. The Japanese and the American troops had defeated the enemy near Pei Ts'ang on the 5th, and occupied Yang Ts'un on the 6th. " The Allied forces, consisting of Americans, THE RELIEF 423 BritisH, and Russians, left Yang Ts'un this morning, and while marching north the General received the letter of Col. Shiba. It is very gratifying to learn from your letter that the foreign community are holding on, and it is the earnest wish and unanimous desire of the Lieut. General and all of us to arrive in Peking as soon as possible, and deliver you from your perilous position. Unless some un- foreseen event takes place, the Allied forces will be at Ho Hsi Wu on the 9th, at Ma T'ou on the loth, Chang Chia Wan on the nth, T'ung Chou on the 12th, and probably arrive at Peking on the 13th or 14th." A letter of a similar tenor was also received from Gen. Gaselee. The messenger got among Chinese soldiers, who de- tained but did not search him, and coming back he was forced to help track a boat. Still he made a relatively quick trip, leaving Tientsin Sunday night, reaching the foreign troops Wednesday morning, and arriving at Peking Friday afternoon. He came in through two half- manned barricades disguised as a coolie searching among the ruins of buildings. Many telegrams were received making inquiries, and others with news. Mr. Conger received one from Wash- ington asking information about his telegram of July i8th, and giving him a name to insert in his reply to establish authenticity. This seems to be an indication that the Yamen is suspected of having sent bogus messages. There is still no answer from the Yamen in regard to food, except a strange verbal message purporting to come from Jung Lu to the Chairman of the General Committee asking him to make out a list of what he wanted, which Jung Lu would furnish, and for which Mr. Tewksbury could pay him later ! The messenger brings a rumour that Li Ping Heng was wounded in the shoulder at Yang 424 CHINA IN CONVULSION Ts'un. One of the Ministers thinks it a pity that it had not been a little lower ( but the wound eventually proved fatal.) There was an attack on the German Legation last night, as well as on the British, and this morning a message came from the Yamen apologizing for it, and saying that they had beheaded the man who made it ! A cow was killed the other day, to the great joy of everyone who could get some of it. One of the legation ladies sent for the cow's liver, only to find that it had been calmly appropriated by the marines. An attache of the British Legation sent up for a part of the cow's kidney as a great luxury, but it had been already dis- tributed. The sympathetic superintendent of the meat ap- portionment, however, not wishing to disappoint him, sent the man the kidney of a horse, " without note or com- ment ; " afterwards meeting him, he inquired how he liked it. He had enjoyed it greatly, and remarked that while eating it he had forgotten that he was in China ! In the afternoon Lt. von Strauss made a sortie on a Chinese barricade in the Mongol Market addition, which provoked a great deal of retaliatory firing. Showers of bricks came over; one of the British marines had his head cut open, and two Chinese were badly stunned. The bricks are much more dangerous than the bullets. Fortu- nately the worst brick attack came while the Chinese work- men were at their afternoon meal, so that the most of them could stand quietly under shelter and watch the bricks curve through the air to their harmless destination. In the evening a hard rain came on, and with it an attack, the firing being especially furious at each loud clap of thunder. It really aj^pcars as if it were considerctl as a signal from the gods for the encouragement of the Chinese. THE RELIEF 425 Saturday, August 11. — Two ponies were condemned this morning on the ground that they were affected by phthisis, but they were absorbed by the less fastidious Chinese, and another horse and a mule were substituted. Dogs, cats, magpies, crows, and sparrows have all been shot for the Catholics, who got the condemned animals. It is proposed to give the grain directly to each family, instead of having it cooked in a common kettle and di- vided. There is some indication of special activity on the wall of the city, where the Chinese flags have been removed, but the number of soldiers seems increased. They have begun firing on the American Legation again, and a ball went through the door of Mr. Squier's office and pene- trated the outer door of the (so-called) iron "safe!" Bullets struck some of the other buildings, and one came into the Minister's bed-room. After several weeks of comparative immunity from this kind of attack by day, its sudden resumption by the enemy is peculiarly exas- perating. Sunday, August 12. — There was intermittent heavy firing during the night at no very long intervals, making it difficult to sleep. There were rumours of sharp attacks in various directions. An Austrian and a German were wounded, and a Frenchman killed. A Russian on duty on the wall was slightly wounded. Another Russian died in the hospital yesterday, and also a French marine. Over at the Fu there was a great deal of yelling during the night. Col. Shiba had kerosene tins beaten, and the Italian soldiers shouted, whistled, and cried " Bravo " to one another, to give the Chinese the impression of un- limited numbers. It was understood yesterday that a deputy official was to come to-day to open a market, but no one appeared. 426 CHINA IN CONVULSION A man who sells eggs to the French Legation soldiers has tokl them tiiat there was a battle at Chang Chia Wan yes- terday, and 3,000 Chinese were killed. There are some appearances of a panic in the city. Jung Lu is said to have taken poison. It was very hot all day, and it was often remarked how trying this must be for the marching troops. In the afternoon there was a sudden and savage attack on the Mongol Market defences, to which the Nordenfelt gun replied. The bullets fell thick, and very low. There w'as a melancholy funeral of two Frenchmen to-day, just on the eve of what we hope is to be the raising of the siege. The ladies of the United States Legation were busy to- day making sand bags for the German Legation defences. The Austrian gun was taken to the stable-yard. A letter was received from the Yamen saying that the Princes and Ministers would come to the British Legation to- morrow to confer w'ith regard to the cessation of hostili- ties. The French Captain La Bruce was killed early in the evening in his own Legation, while walking to a barri- cade. It might have been well to have replied that this Legation is at present a very unsafe place for " Princes and Ministers." Sir Claude planned to receive them in his own house. The Spanish Legation would have seemed a far more suitable place, but at last a mat-shed was put up outside the front gate. The Chinese do not believe in receiving them at all. It is reported that a Chinese gun at the Ha Ta gate has been firing blank cartridges, so that the Germans did not think it worth while to reply with rifles. At a loop- hole in the Mongol Market region, two nights ago, a bullet cut clean through the small board over the open- ing, so that the bricks dropped down without having been THE RELIEF 4^7 hit. It is becoming a favourite plan with the Chinese now to keep on firing away at a loophole and its neighbour- hood, until the wall gives way. Sometimes they get the range, strap the gun tight, and keep blazing away at one spot. Our Nordenfelt yesterday knocked down a sec- tion of the Chinese barricade in this manner, but the hole was promptly filled up with sand bags. Monday, August 13. — The attack which was expected came off, and was practically continuous all night, and very violent. The Chinese soldiers and their rifles seem to be different from those before used, and the bullets (Mannlicher) have much more penetrating power. Many barricades were much weakened and must be repaired. It is marvellous that no one in the British Legation was hit during the night. The firing was more consecutive than at any time since the siege began, and strangely in- congruous with proposals for peace, — another of the many glaring absurdities of our situation. The impression given by these repeated and furious onsets is that, the time being short, they must annihilate us immediately. The shooting was much lower than hitherto. There was a meeting of the Ministers in the forenoon to consider the place of receiving the Yamen Ministers. It is difficult for the Ministers to refuse an interview with the Yamen, because it was on the ground of being use- ful in helping on such negotiations that they declined to go to Tientsin. At half past ten o'clock, however, came a letter from the Yamen to say that the Ministers have reopened hos- tilities ( !), by killing an officer and 26 men in the region of the Board of Works (just west of the British Lega- tion), and as "the Yamen Ministers are busy," they can not come as agreed ! There was no reply as to the pur- chase of food, and not an atom of news from outside. 428 CHINA IN CONVULSION Both the German and the American Legations were at- tacked last night, the former at very short range. Notice is posted that arrangements have been made to take photo- graphs of the siege positions, etc., with a camera which belongs to a Japanese, and there are fortunately enough photographic chemicals available for the purpose. Some Chinese cavalry leaving the city yesterday by the Ch'ien ^len were fired at several times from the wall, but this is not the alleged resumption of hostilities, but the fact that men were killed on the west of us. The Chinese officer who was shot is said to be a Captain who had guaranteed to take the Legation within five days, which time was up yesterday. This, however, is not authenti- cated. The American and Russian flags have been put up on the wall to-day, and a staff prepared for the British flag. About eight o'clock in the evening there w-as, as ex- pected, a furious attack in the Mongol Market region, which was kept up for a long time and only died down to be again resumed. An hour or so later there was a second, likewise very furious and vindictive. Tuesday, August 14. — The distinction between to-day and yesterday was entirely obliterated, as no one could sleep, and very few made any pretence of even going to bed. The battery on the wall of the Imperial City began firing Krupp shells during the night, about ten shots in all. One of these fell in a dressing-room off Sir Claude's bed-room, and made a complete wreck of it. Three others struck in the front gate fort, one of them coming through the gate-way and knocking over by its concussion those who were at hand. Between eleven and twelve o'clock there was an alarm on the bell of a " general attack," and every one turned out — the first experience of the kind for nearly six weeks. THE RELIEF 4^9 Sir Claude was on hand and, after waiting to see how many appeared, dismissed them after a brief delay as if it were a mere drill. Three hours later there was a second alarm, which was caused by the fear that the Chinese were about to make a rush into the Mongol Market defences. Volunteers were assigned their positions, and the attack was as savage as those which had preceded, and as unsuccessful. It was alleged by some of the Volunteers that the Chinese officers were heard urging the men to make the long-expected rush, crying " Don't be afraid — we can get through," to which after a short interval there was the response, " It can not be done." In preparation for this attack all the big guns had been made ready, the American Colt's Automatic in the main gate, as usual, the Nordenfelt on its high platform back of the house of the Chinese Secretary, the Austrian and the " International " in the Mongol Market addition. In firing the latter, owing to its recoil and uncertainty, it was necessary to have a large porthole, and Mitchell, the American gunner, had his arm shattered by a rifle- ball while discharging the piece. When the sheh-gun opened fire on us, the Colt's replied, and the gun was eventually silenced, or at least suspended operation. All through the night at irregular intervals could be heard the deep baying of the Nordenfelt, the irresistible and simultaneous discharges of which must have been very depressing as well as exasperating to those within its range. The attack at the Fu was fierce as elsewhere, but it did not drive the Japanese from their position, for the Chinese did not charge. The same was the case in the Hanlin, and likewise in the French Legation, be- tween I and 2 A. M. A French priest and the Belgian doctor were slightly 430 CHINA IN CONVULSION wounded during the night, at the British Legation — among the very few casualties to civiHans within that area during the whole siege. The Japanese doctor at the Su Wang Fu had a ball through his leg, a British marine was wounded in the shoulder, and a German who had been wounded previously and had recovered, was killed, also a Russian on the wall. It was understood that yes- terday the Yamen had notified the Ministers that what- ever Chinese officer reopened hostilities should be court- martialed. The proceedings of this fearsome night were a singular commentary upon this imaginary truce. Between 2 and 3 a. m. there was distinctly heard the sharp rat-tat-tat of a machine gun far to the east, and it was at once concluded that the foreign troops are at hand. The yard, even at that early hour, swarmed with eager groups discussing the probabilities. The question was raised whether the machine-guns which we heard might not be in the hands of the Chinese themselves, and it was remembered that Li Hung Chang had ordered a large number of them many years ago. (It was not then suspected, what was afterwards said to have been a fact, that these particular guns had been captured from the Chinese, and were probably a part of the very equipment referred to.) Many excellent designs have been sent in for the pro- posed commemorative medal, and to-day they are repre- sented by drawings placed on the bulletin board, and votes are solicited as to the material, the pattern, the in- scription obverse and reverse. A limit of time is also fixed. Unfortunately for the best effect, the all absorb- ing interest in the impending relief deprives the mere pictorial symbol of much of its interest, so that the voting halted, and was soon altogether abandoned. In spite of the heavy firing none of our barricades were THE RELIEF 431 overthrown, and the strength of those most threatened in the Mongol Market tract had been almost doubled within twenty-four hours. During the forenoon it was learned that the shell-gun on the Imperial city, which fired so much last night, had been taken away, which indicates activity of some sort. Our Austrian Maxim has been removed to the north stable court to be ready for it, however, should it begin again. There has been a sound of heavy cannonading to the eastward all the morning. From the wall the Southern City seems to be quiet, but Chinese troops are hurrying in through the Ch'ien Men, instead of going out, as yester- day. The bulletin-board has a notice that " the sentries in charge of the south gates have received orders not to allow any civilian to leave tlie Legation without a special permit from the ofificer in charge of the defences, since in case of a general attack by retreating Chinese the services of every available volunteer will be required." Another order announces that '' women and children and persons not on duty are requested as far as possible to keep within doors to-day, as there will probably be considerable danger from dropping fire." From the city wall an excellent view is to be had of the bombardment of the Ch'i Hua gate, upon which thus far not much impression seems to have been made. There is also a heavy attack at the Tung Pien Gate, and all the time the deep rumbling of the heavy booming guns of " our troops." " Blessed are the people that hear the joyful sound." The troops on the wall thought those outside would " be lucky if they got in to-morrow night." Soon after two o'clock, Mr. Moore, who was on the wall, reported to Capt. Hall that he saw foreign troops in the distance; though this was doubted, it soon proved to be the case, and he was sent post-haste to convey the 432 CHINA IN CONVULSION news to Sir Claude MacDonald. It was at first errone- ously supposed to be the Germans who had been sighted, but they soon showed up as British. The excitement was now at its height, and the few who had leave to do so, not being on duty, hastened out through the Russian Legation to the street, only to be told that the troops w^ere already making their way into the Tartar city through the water-gate. There was at the time very little water, but the mud rendered the entrance through the narrow passage somewhat disagreeable, yet it was only for a few rods and unworthy of mention as a difficulty in a march. The regiment w-hich made the first entry, was the ist Sikhs and then the 7th Bengal Rajput Infantry, and Gen. Gaselee was one of the first officers to be seen. The banks of the canal were lined by Chinese, and tlie few Europeans present, among whom was Sir Claude, tried to raise a cheer, but their voices were unequal to the task and it was a feeble failure ! On reaching the British Legation there was such a riot of joy as is seldom seen in Asia, and such as was never seen in the Capital of the Chinese Empire. Every- body swarmed out to see the glorious spectacle. The Rajputs cheered as they marched, till they brought up on the tennis-court, beyond which there seemed to be no- where to go. The next regiment was the 24th Punjab Infantry (Frontier Force), who went cheering past the hospital filled with brave but disappointed, yet happy, men who had lived through it after all, and now saw the day of rescue. It was remembered that the ist Sikhs regiment is des- cended from the one which helped take Peking forty years ago. The ist Bengal Lancers came next, having had to HERE THEY COME," GENERAL GASELEE ON THE RIGHT FRATERNIZING ON THE TENNIS COURT THE RELIEF 433 wait for the Ch'ien Men to be forced ; then a detachment of the Royal Welsh Fusileers, the 23rd Field Battery, the Hongkong Regiment, and the Royal Marines. By this time the limited available spaces of the tennis- court and the Legation roads and paths was more than exhausted, and the whole place was one complicated tangle of Sikhs, Rajputs, Lancers and Fusileers, with Chinese and the besieged Occidentals everywhere at once. In the midst of this wild welter the American 14th In- fantry arrived, to add to the joy and the chaos, and everyone is asking to know where some one else is, and what is going on in that segment of creation outside of the Peking Legations. The troops were no sooner in the courts than Gen. Gaselee relieved the sentinels on duty with his own men. One of them (a Sikh), was assigned to the front gate fort where the Colt's Automatic was pouring out its reck- less welcome in a thunder of rat-tats. There he was imme- diately hit by a bullet through a loophole and went promptly to the hospital. The tumultuous cheering of both the besieged and the relievers roused the Chinese from their afternoon nap, and they began the fusillade with renewed vigour, but apparently without any notion of what the altered conditions denoted. For a time the bullets were falling thickly all over the Legation, and the wife of a Belgian engineer was wounded in the leg, — the only case in which a lady received any injury from shot or shell during the whole siege. In a very short time a large hole was blown into the Carriage Park through the thick wall to which we had owed so much, and in a brief time that expansive en- closure was filled with the jaded horses of the Lancers. The Chinese shots grew less in vigour, fewer in number, 434 CHINA IN CONVULSION more distant in space, and died away to nothing. The men who had so long manned the barricades facing us " folded their tents like the Arabs, and silently stole away " (except that so far as they had any tents they left them in situ), and were to be seen and heard no more. XXIV FROM THE TAKU FORTS TO THE RELIEF OF PEKING AS the military events connected with the progress of the AlHes from the coast to the capital have been detailed at length by more than one com- petent observer, they will be sketched here only in the briefest manner, — though of the deepest importance and interest. While the clouds were thickening about the all but doomed city of Peking, a splendid fleet had for weeks been proudly riding at anchor off the mouth of the Peiho. There was good reason for indecision as to their move- ments. By the middle of June it was obvious to everyone that the political complications were so grave that no peace- ful solution was at all likely. The Mephistophelian cynicism of the Edicts of the Chinese Government, the fact that the regular troops and the Boxers were every- where fraternizing, and the increasing evidence that the Throne was privy to the councils of extermination, made the situation difficult beyond precedent, surpassing the flight of the wildest imagination previous to this experi- ence. Peking was already cut off from the world. There was an unknown body of Chinese troops between the capital and Tientsin, where the McCalla-Seymour Ex- pedition was soon to be fighting for its life against over- whelming odds. Gen. Nieh was somewhere, and there was a great camp of his troops at Lu T'ai, which could 435 436 CHINA IN CONVULSION be brought to bear upon the hne of communication of the fleet with the Settlement of Tientsin. There were signs that those troops were about to move, that the river itself was being mined with torpedoes, and that the Taku Forts were to be strongly reinforced, so that their capture without enormous loss would be out of the question. On Saturday, June i6th, the Admirals held a Council and under these exigent circumstances determined to send an ultimatum calling for the disbandment of the troops, and announcing that if it was not complied with before 2 a. m., the United Squadron would destroy the forts. Admiral Kempff, representing the United States, dissented from this step, but that fact did not in- fluence his subsequent actions. The questions in what is termed " International Law " thus brought to the front, have served for much debate, and many vigorous editorials ever since. But at the time, and under the circumstances, it is difficult to see what else the Admirals could have done with any self-respect, or with any regard to the interests of their respective Powers. It is quite true that it was this ultimatum which directly led to the corresponding order to the Lega- tions to leave Peking within four and twenty hours, and it is likewise a fact that the effect of the attack upon the Taku Forts by the Allied Forces was to fire the Chinese national feeling, as nothing else had ever before done. In some respects it is comparable in its conse- quences to the effect of the assault upon Fort Sumter upon the people of the North, at the opening of the American Civil War. Nevertheles.% if the Taku Forts had not been taken within a few hours of that time, it is a moral certainty that not only would the Legations in Peking have been even in far greater peril than ll;ey were placed by this FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 437 act, but that it would have been hard to save the lives of a single man, woman, or child of the large numbers who were at Tientsin, and who as it was were rescued from deadly peril only with the greatest difficulty. The Chinese Commander of the principal Fort acted with more decision and courage than was expected, and an hour before the time limit had expired opened fire upon the fleet, and hostilities had begun. The Forts were for the third time assailed by foreign guns, which in 1858 had taken them within the compass of twenty minutes, while the succeeding year the Forts had been able to beat back a combined squadron of thirteen British and French gunboats. On the present occasion the fight lasted about six hours, when the last gun was silenced and the north Fort was stormed, the British and the Japanese entering simultaneously, and the other contin- gents a little later, the Chinese soldiers prudently aban- doning the position in hot haste. A shell from the British " Algerine " exploded a maga- zine in the south Fort, which blew up, with a magnificent column of black smoke, 500 feet in height, the wreckage falling for miles around. By 7 130 all the Forts had been taken, with a loss of 21 killed and 57 wounded on the part of the assailants. But for various errors of judg- ment on the part of the Chinese, and their lack of resolute- ness, the results might have been very different. The situation at Tientsin was now serious, but no in- formation regarding it had reached Taku, the communi- cation having been completely cut ofif. It was impera- tively necessary to get word to the fleet of the dire dis- tress of the foreign settlement. In this emergency James Watts, a young Englishman of 22 years, volunteered to ride with despatches through forty miles of country swarming with Boxers. ITe started under cover of dark- 438 CHINA IN CONVULSION ness on a pony, with three mounted Cossacks, for a journey of twelve hours, knowing only three words of Russian. He had to speed through villages where men were sitting with rifles and fixed bayonets, his flask was shot away, and the lives of all were in momently peril. The horses swam a creek near a hostile village and reached Taku, where the despatches were delivered to the Russian Admiral. This brave act saved the lives of the besieged at Tientsin, and was subsequently rewarded with a decoration. From Tangku to Tientsin the railway was largely torn up by Boxers, and the last part of the distance was m.ade with extreme difficulty by the relieving forces. They were welcomed by the besieged with great joy, a full week after the Forts had been taken. In case relief did not come, the military authorities had seriously debated the question of the necessity of abandoning Tientsin altogether, and retreating upon Taku. The relieving body had no sooner reached Tientsin than a party was sent out to rescue in turn the force of Admiral Seymour which though but a few miles from Tientsin was unable to move on account of the large number of the wounded and the strength of the enemy. To the fortunes and misfortunes of that famous expedi- tion it will be desirable to devote a little attention. Early in June Admiral Seymour had proposed that the senior naval officers should consult in regard to mutual protection, and the first meeting of this kind was held June 4th, the officers of eight nations being present. Two days later at another consultation it was agreed that if communication with Peking should be cut oflf, it should be reopened with whatever force was necessary. On the 9th another conference was held owing to the FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 439 receipt of an urgent telegram from Peking, the Ministers saying that unless they were soon relieved it would be too late. Capt. McCalla was resolved to go to the relief of the United States Minister, and Admiral Seymour in like manner declared his intention to start at once, and ex- pressed a hope that the rest would cooperate. The force which left on the morning of the loth was composed of 300 British, 112 Americans, 40 Italians, and 25 Austrians. The train proceeded to Yang Ts'un where it had to stop for repairs. There it remained for the night, and there two more trains joined the expedition, making a total number of 112 Americans, 25 Aus- trians, 915 British, 100 French, 450 Germans, 40 Italians, 54 Japanese, and 112 Russians. This was increased the next day by the addition of 200 Russians and 58 French, to a total of 2,066 men. On the 1 2th a guard having been left at Lo Fa, it was found that the line was much cut up in front. A party was sent out to An Ting to prevent more damage and to hold the station there. The party was attacked three times by Boxers, who retreated with the loss of fifteen men. About the middle of the forenoon there was another onset by 450 Boxers, who advanced with great courage and enthusiasm, but who were repulsed with a total loss of about 150. As the party at An Ting was out of ammunition a retreat was ordered. On the 13th Maj. Johnstone was sent towards An Ting, but was attacked in a village adjoining the railway. The Boxers lost about 25 men killed, while there were no foreign casualties. The party returned to the main body on the evening of the 14th. On that day there was a fierce and determined assault by Boxers in great numbers on the train at Lang Fang. They advanced in a loose 440 CHINA IN CONVULSION formation, vsitli ihc utmost courage under a withering fire, and some even reached tlie train before they were killed. Their loss was about lOO. Five Italians who were on an exposed picket in an abandoned village were killed. At 5 :30 p. M. a messenger from Lo Fa in the rear reported that the guard was being attacked by a large body of the enemy. A train was taken down the line to assist them, when it was found that the fight was over, and that the Boxers were retreating having left about lOO killed. Two small cannon had been captured from the Chinese. Two seamen were dangerously wounded, one of whom died later. On the 15th the line was repaired under a strong guard, but the road below Lo Fa to the rear was reported broken up, and the Boxers were concentrating on Yang Ts'un to cut off the retreat of the expedition. On the 1 6th a train endeavoured to get through to Tientsin, starting at 4 a. m., but returned at 3 p. m., because the line was too much damaged. Both provisions and ammunition were now running short ; the expedition was entirely cut off from its base and since for three days there had been no intelligence from Tientsin, it was ignorant of what was occurring elsewhere. It was vital that the rear sliould be protected; but when on the 17th a train reached Yang Ts'un it found the station de- molished, communication more than ever cut off, and no supplies obtainable. Messages had been sent back to Tientsin with orders for junks and provisions to be sent to Yang Ts'un, but no couriers had got through, and even if they had done so no boats could have been sent. From the 13th of June to the 26th there was no com- munication from tlic Admiral to Tientsin or rice versa. FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 441 As an advance was now felt to be an impossibility the recall of the trains in the front was determined on. The following day — June i8th — a new aspect was put on affairs by a strong attack at Lang Fang, not as here- tofore by Boxers, but by the regular troops of Tung Fu Hsiang, who had been stationed in the Hunting Park south of Peking, and who now began to " bear a hand " in a decided manner. The force including cavalry was estimated at not less than 5,000 men, armed with the latest magazine rifles. This gave the first definite knowl- edge that Imperial troops were arrayed against the ex- pedition. They were driven off, but rallied, and when repulsed were supposed to have lost 400 killed. The loss of the Allies was six killed, and 48 wounded. At a conference the next day (19th) it was decided to abandon the railway trains, and to withdraw to Tien- tsin, marching by the left bank of the river, conveying the wounded and the necessaries in boats, four of which had been taken by the Germans below Yang Ts'un. A start was made at 3 p. m. A six-pounder gun had to be thrown overboard before one of the junks would float. The men were unskilled in handling the clumsy boats, and no Chinese were to be had. The enemy opened fire but were driven back. Several villages had to be carried by rifle fire or by bayonet charges, which were invariably successful. A one-pound gun used by the enemy was harassing, but its position could not be located. The distance made this day was eight miles. The Chinese cavalry hovered about all day firing occasionally, the enemy using artillery which was replied to in kind. Sev- eral villages had to be taken by fighting, the enemy being strongly posted in Pei Ts'ang. It was decided after a rest to make a night-march. 442 CHINA IN CONVULSION On the 2 1st the enem}' made an increasingly stubborn resistance, and their gun-power was augmented so tJiat but six miles were made. The hghter containing the guns filled and sank, and had to be abandoned, only the Maxims being saved. At 4 p. M. the expedition arrived opposite the Imperial Chinese Armory at Hsiku. A party of lOO men under Maj. Johnstone was sent across the river to rush the position, and at the same time a German detachment crossed lower down, capturing several Krupp guns. The two parties soon cleared the Armory, the main body crossing the river and occupying the place, which was commodious and defensible by the numerous captured guns. The provisions remaining were sufficient only for three days at half allowance, but the next day when there was an opportunity to make a search, 15 tons of rice were found. This set at rest all fears of starvation. Renewed efforts were made to communicate with Tientsin, but in vain. The Chinese made a most de- termined attempt on the 23rd to retake the Armory, but were wholly unsuccessful. Immense supplies of guns, ammunition, and war material of the latest pattern were found there ; thus the great want of food and ammuni- tion being suddenly met it was possible to hold out for several days. The number of wounded was about 230 and on this account it was impossible to force a way to Tientsin, now but a few miles distant. The couriers had all been either kil'ed or stopped. Guns were mounted and a Boxer stronghold down the river was attacked with such good effect that thereafter the enemy was more quiet. A courier succeeded on the 23rd in getting through to Tientsin. Although captured and tied for a time to a tree, he had destroyed his message and was released. FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 443 A Chinese soldier taken prisoner the next day said that Gen. Nich's army was much discouraged at their failure, having attacked with 25 battalions of 300 or 400 men each. On the 25th the relief column under the Russian Col. Shirinsky appeared in sight, to the joy of all. The wounded were transported across the river, and the whole force followed later, bivouacking on the bank for the night. On the 26th, after the return march had com- menced, Lt. Lowther-Crofton, and Mr. Davidge, Gun- ner, remained behind to destroy as far as possible the contents of the Armory, which were of the estimated value of three million pounds sterling. After the work of destruction had been accomplished the officers re- crossed the river, mounted ponies which were in waiting, and overtook the main body. During the whole sixteen days it was difficult to esti- mate with precision the numbers of the enemy. At first they were simply Boxers armed with spears, but later the Chinese regulars, and perhaps the best fighting men to be found in the Empire, joined them. It was unfore- seen that these soldiers would join in the attack, and this alone made the whole enterprise impracticable. The gallantry and steadiness with which it was con- ducted by this mixed contingent are worthy of all praise. Admiral Seymour in his official report especially com- mends the conduct and services of Capt. Von Usedom of the Imperial German Navy, whom he had nominated as his successor in case of accident, and also Capt. Mc- Calla, each of whom were wounded. The dramatic incidents of this attempted relief expedi- tion attracted universal attention, and whatever else the enterprise may have accomplished it disposed once for all of the favourite proposition so often advanced that it would be possible for a small but well organized and 444 CHINA IN CONVULSION thoroughly equipped foreign force to march through China from end to end without effective opposition. An important result of this failure to force a way to Peking was the profound conviction on the part of many military authorities that the Capital could not now he reached without an enormous army prepared for all con- tingencies, and able to hold open communications with their base against any possible force which the Chinese could bring. Extreme confidence in foreign ability to deal with Chinese opposition, thus gave way to a much juster estimate of the difficulties to be faced when the Chinese were thoroughly aroused and poured forth in practically illimitable numbers. The story of the Siege of Tientsin deserves far more space than can be devoted to it in these pages, for taken altogether it is perhaps not less remarkable than the Siege in Peking. It should be remembered that the Foreign Settlements, French, British, and German, lie along the Peiho, be- ginning a mile or so below the native city and extending for another two miles or more, with an average breadth of perhaps half a mile. An earth rampart fully ten miles in length surrounds the settlements, the native city, and the suburbs. The vicinity of the city itself and that of all the settlements, was crowded with Chinese villages, each of which became a natural and a convenient nest for Boxers and for Imperial Soldiers in their attack. The rampart which, could it have been held, would have made an excellent defence, was partly within and partly without the lines, and the handful of foreign soldiers, aggregating about 2,400 when reenforced by the Volunteers, was totally inadequate to guard so long a line, attacked by perhaps five thousand Chinese troops, with an indefinite number of cooperating Boxers. FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 445 Instead of making a strenuous attack in two places at once, the Chinese contented themselves with a galling rifle fire from across the river, and indeed from every direction. The bombardment by shells began on Sunday, June 17th — the day of the fighting at the Taku Forts — by a plan evidently preconcerted, and continued with occasional intermittence until the city was captured a month later. The miscellaneous foreign community retreated to the Municipal Hall, a lofty structure in the Norman style, well adapted to serve both as a fort and a hospital. The larger part of the non-combatants gathered there under siege conditions, but a considerable number of the missionaries were invited by Mr. Edmund Cousins, the hospitable agent of Jardine, Matheson & Co., to his com- pound, where also the native Christians to the number of over 500 found accommodation in the expansive go- downs. As in Peking, so here at the beginning of the siege, the Christians were regarded as a menace and a nuisance, and as in Peking so in Tientsin, it was not long before it was perceived that without their help the necessary labour simply could not have been performed as practically all other Chinese quit their work and fled. The whole settlement was barricaded with bales of goods from the godowns, a task which, owing to the long distances and the number of cross-streets, involved a great amount of exhausting labour. The men among the Christians carried water, ammunition, and provisions, and dug the numerous graves, the women did the hospital washing, picked over the camel's- wool for pillows, and performed much other useful service, winning in the end unstinted praise. The arrival of the relief force at Tientsin did not prove the immediate deliverance of the Foreign Settle- 446 CHINA IN CONVULSION ments from perpetual attack, as had been expected. The enemy was numerous and gradually became aggressive. After a fierce and bloody contest, the Eastern Arsenal was taken on June 27th, a slightly inaccurate report of which by Yii Lu, the Governor, found its way into the "Peking Gazette," and enlightened the darkness of the besieged in the Legations. The military relations were, it is true, sufficiently harmonious, but that did not lead to the vigorous action which any one or two of the de- tachments would have been likely to take by themselves. A Fort situated at the junction of the Peiho and the Grand Canal was the key of the position, for it com- manded the native city, the suburbs, the settlements, and the line of advance to Peking by rail or river. The dif- ficulties of the Allies were enormously increased by the inexplicable lack of suitable artillery, theirs being far in- ferior to that of the Chinese. Many of the Chinese guns were difficult to locate, and practically inaccessible, but their range was excellent, and their attacks most annoy- ing. On a single day six shells were thrown into the Temperance Hall, occupied as the head-quarters of Gen. Dorward and his staff. One shell went through the dinner-table while the officers were at tiffin, followed im- mediately by another equally well aimed. It was unsafe to appear anywhere upon the streets on account of random shots, the steady rifle fire, and the con- stant shooting from loopholes in Chinese houses in the French settlement and elsewhere, at every foreigner who showed himself. The settlements were full of spies, many of them posted in foreign houses deserted by their owners, whence they kept up a perpetual fusillade. Some of them even acted as signalmen for the Chinese gunners at a distance, indicating at what places to direct their fire, and it proved practically impossible to detect and dislodge BLACK FORT AT TIENTblX, OUTSIDE VIEW i -^¦^msi ;i» 1^ 1^ .' • • '^ *^ '^ •'^''•>'^.i-i^i;.! BLACK FORT AT TIENTSIN, INSIDE VIEW I FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 447 them all, but as many as were caught were immediately executed. The center of the fighting and the key of the position on the east side of the river was the railway station, the holding of which was recognized both by the Chinese and the Allies as vital. The courage and persistence of the Russians at tliis point more than once saved the day. They guarded the pontoon bridge, and bore the brunt of the heavy fighting in the exposed positions between the river and the captured Arsenal. On one occasion en- gines were urgently needed down the line. There were locomotives at the station, but the problem was how to get them out under the heavy shell fire. Russian in- fantry made a wide feint attack to attract the enemy's attention on the left, while two engines on which steam had been got up, and three trucks were to make a dash over a mile of exposed embankment. Hardly had the first pufif of white smoke appeared from the funnel, when the Chinese saw what was going on and at once turned their guns upon the train. Four shells whizzed over it and then two fell just short; speed was gathered and the gunners did not again get so near, but the gauntlet had to be run for a mile or so, and it was made warm for them all the way. It was a daring deed dashingly done, and the most exciting inci- dent of the day. On the 5th of July transportation was provided and the ladies and children who were still left in Tientsin were sent to Tangku, on the way to some safer place than a settlement which was daily being shelled. A previous party had escaped just in time to witness the attack on the forts, and to be within range of the fire, — to their imminent peril, from which they all happily escaped. For a summary of the following events, as for some 448 CHINA IN CONVULSION which have been previously mentioned, we are indebted to the graphic and trustworthy narrative of the Corre- spondent of the " London Times," who called attention to the surprising and unique fact that 10,000 European troops were being held in check by about 15,000 Chinese braves, the former paralyzed by the lack of long-range guns ; thus repeating the lesson which England had paid so dearly to learn in South Africa — the importance of heavy artillery. The inactivity of the Allied forces encouraged the Chinese to renewed efforts. Not content with vigorously shelling the settlements, they were busily engaged in pushing out their lines in a south-westerly direction, until eventually their flank rested on the ruined building at the race-course, their left remaining as before on the mud wall where the Lu T'ai canal flows through it. Their lines thus stretched from north-east to south-west over a distance of about six miles, in a rough crescent or semi-circular shape, having the settlements for a centre. A British battery of naval guns on the mud wall at the extreme west of the northern line of defence was in a precarious position, being under a harassing fire from front and rear, besides being enfiladed. The settlements, now become one huge camp, were subjected to a severe cross-fire, in addition to being bombarded from the fort near the city and from the batteries on the north bank of the Lu T'ai canal. The practice made by the Chinese gunners showed signs of considerable improvement, so that an increasing amount of damage was done and the casualties in barracks grew frequent. Inactivity was no longer possible ; sometiiing had to be done. The most pressing need was for the clearance of the rear and flank of the battery of British guns on the mud wall, and this was accomplished on the 9th b}' a com- FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 449 bined wide flanking movement to the south-west, working around eventually to the north-east until the West Arsenal was captured and cleared. This was accomplished by the Japanese blue-jackets and the American marines, who entered together, the Japanese flag flying over it soon after. The whole movement was well planned and well executed by the British, Japanese and Americans in com- bination, the naval battery was relieved in flank and rear, and the settlements were subjected to no further cross shell-fire. The next day passed quietly, the Chinese even refrain- ing from attacking the outposts at the railway station, which had not before happened since the siege opened. They began again on the nth, and were only repulsed after three hours' sharp fighting, in which the French and Japanese lost heavily, and the British and Russians slightly. The Boxers had bayonets, and as they got into a string of railway trucks lying outside of the foreign lines, the soldiers had to turn them out at the point of the bayonet. The difficulties in getting the Allied artil- lery into position were great, owing to the lack of ma- terial, tools and machinery. These were at length over- come, and on the 13th it was arranged that a combined movement of the Russians, assisted by the Germans, should be made on the batteries of the Chinese at the Lu T'ai canal, w'ith a force of perhaps 3,500. Another body of about 4,500, consisting of Japanese, British, Ameri- cans, French and Austrians, was to advance under cover of the western battery of British naval guns and attempt the capture of the city of Tientsin. The forces of the Japanese and British, under General Fukushima and General Dorward, started at 3 a. m., making a wide flanking movement similar to the one on the 9th. 450 CHINA IN CONVULSION At daylight the British batteries attacked the Chinese position. The AlHed troops converged on the West Arsenal about a mile from the south gate. During the morning there was a terrific explosion caused by the blowing up of a vast quantity of brown prismatic powder stored in a magazine connected with the East Arsenal and situated near the Lu T'ai canal. A colossal cloud of smoke stood up white and still against the clear blue sky — a " wonderful and beautiful sight." In the settlements nearly every one got the impression that his house had been struck by a shell, and many, running out to see what damage had been done, found this marvel in the sky. The plan was to advance against the south gate, which the Japanese were to blow up and so effect an entrance ; on their right were the French, and later, through an error, the Americans under Col. Liscum ; on the left were the British. The day was hot, and so was the fire from the British battery as well as from the Chinese guns and the innu- merable rifles on the wall. The plain is dotted with tumuli each representing a Chinese grave, but they af- forded very little shelter for so many soldiers at so short a distance from the enemy. Col. Liscum fell pierced by a bullet, and the loss of the Americans, as well as of the other detachments, was very great, perhaps amounting to ten per cent, of the forces engaged, and including a great number of officers. If the Chinese infantry and cavalry which during the whole morning had been seen drawn up on the plain to the westward had taken an active part in the operations, matters would have been still more serious. As it was, the failure of ammunition and the difficulty of making effective headway made the situation bad enough. FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 451 Hour after hour passed, but the blowing up of the south gate did not take place. At length Gen. Fukishima sent word to Gen. Dorward that he should himself oc- cupy his present position throughout the night, to which Gen. Dorward agreed. Meantime no report had come from the Russians whose operations on the north were a principal part of the work of the day. It later appeared that they had been very successful. After heavy fighting they had captured the batteries on the north bank of the Lu T'ai canal, and pushing on to destroy two Chinese camps, left a force to attack in the dawn, the main body returning to camp with the loss of about 150 men. At three o'clock on the morning of the 14th, the Japa- nese crossed the city moat, blew up the entrance to the bas- tion of the south gate, scaled the walls, and opening the gate itself from the inside, admitted the rest of the force. The Japanese, French, British and Americans poured into the city, the Chinese dispersing like clouds before a strong wind. The Chinese position, had it been properly defended, was one of irresistible strength, but Chinese troops are incapable of resisting a resolute attack of Western or Japanese soldiers and had virtually aban- doned their defence before there was any external evi- dence of that fact. The city was no sooner captured than a Tientsin Pro- visional Government was organized by the Military Com- manders, and installed in the yamen of the Governor General, who had fled, and who seems to have killed himself and his whole family at Yang Ts'un. From the occupation of the city onward for a period of nearly three weeks, the whole world, especially the tiny segment of it imprisoned in the Peking Legations, was anxiously waiting to know what was next to be done toward their relief. The correspondence in regard to 452 CHINA IN CONVULSION the matter would fill volumes, and there is more between the lines than in them. Considering the proximity of Japan and the complete- ness of her military preparations, it appeared to many that, in the dire emergency, that Power would surely be intrusted with the task of rescuing the besieged of all nations, lest by undue delay they should all be massacred together. Japan was ready to do the work, provided she were asked to do so by all the other Powers. The " other Powers " had their own ideas, some of which were ex- pressed and some of which were repressed. In case Japan were to execute this commission, what was to pre- vent her from retaining the territory which would be once more hers by right of conquest? Every one had vivid memories of the events following the war between China and Japan, when the latter Empire was defrauded of the fruits of her victory by " diplomacy," in other words by superior force. The result was what every one, even the besieged themselves, anticipated, and diplomatically next to noth- ing was done beyond exchanging notes and ascertaining by slow processes of conference, proposition and explana- tion, iterated and reiterated, what the Powers respectively were not prepared to do. Troops meantime were pour- ing into northern China from the uttermost parts of the earth, with more and ever more to follow. There was not wanting evidence that delay might be fatal to the success of the relief of the Legations, but the inevitable difficulties attendant upon the movement of large bodies of troops in a foreign land under unpropi- tious conditions, especially when as now flying several diflTcrent flags, made it unlikely that anything would be done before September. The efi"ect of the repulse of Admiral Seymour, as already remarked, was to inspire *r>^i ^^ ^:^^^ W PI WALL OF TIENTSIN AFTER BOMBARDMENT GATE THROUGH WHICH ALLIES ENTERED TIENTSIN FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 453 extreme distrust of any but the most thorough prepara- tion, especially as it was thought that the Chinese might be able to mass perhaps fifty thousand troops to oppose the Allied advance. The Americans and the British were alike impatient for a forward movement, but noth- ing seemed decided upon. It became known at a later day that the influence of Jung Lu had been exerted in Peking to minimize the unavoidable attacks upon the Legations, and that, while he could not repress he could in some degree neutralize the vicious energy of Tung Fu Hsiang; and in this he was to a considerable degree successful. Jung Lu was in communication with trusted Chinese at Taku and at the Pei T'ang Forts, who perfectly comprehended the situation. It was learned from messengers who left Pe- king at the time when the capture of Tientsin was first known there, that the party of Prince Tuan and Tung Fu Hsiang was practically irresistible, and that it would not do to wait till September to start the army of relief. This information was communicated to Mr. Detring, one of the commissioners of the Imperial Customs, and by him to the Allied Commanders. On the 3rd of August a five hours' conference of the Allied Generals was held, at which it was decided to start the next day, despite the fact that it was in the midst of the rainy season when the difficulties of trans- port are likely to be almost insuperable. As it was they were truly colossal, and were greatly augmented by the heterogeneous nature of the Allied forces, and the end- less variety of their equipment. The latter was at all points insufficient, even that of the Japanese, who had to provide for a division instead, as originally planned, for a brigade. The road w^as blocked with carts of all sizes and kinds, from the light little wagon used by the 454 CHINA IN CONVULSION Japanese to the heavy arm)- wagons of the Americans, drawn by four enormous mules and capable under any ordinary circumstances of hauHng immense loads. The total number of troops was in the vicinity of 20,000, of whom the Jar»anese had about 10,000, the Russians 4,000, the British 3,000, the Americans 2,000, and the other Powers each but a few hundred. All the larger con- tingents were provided with artillery, the Japanese alone having perhaps as many guns as all the others combined. On the afternoon of the 4th the British and American troops moved out toward Hsiku, where Admiral Sey- mour's expedition had taken the Armory. The route lay through the endless series of villages which line the Peiho on either side. Heavy rain had threatened, and on the way it began to fall, making the roads slippery and furnishing a foretaste of what might be expected if the fall should be heavy and continuous. Before the village was reached the rain had stopped. Gen. Gaselee took up his headquarters with the British troops to the left of the place, and the Americans to the right. Orders were issued for an early start on the fol- lowing day, and the force lay down on the wet ground to snatch what sleep they might before the impending fight. The British troops consisted of four companies of the Welsh Fusiliers; the ist Bengal Lancers; the 12th Field Battery and the Hongkong Artillery, with two naval 12-pounders and four Maxims; the ist Sikhs, 250 of the 24th Punjab Infantry, and 400 of the Rajputs. The Naval Brigade was to cooperate with the Rus- sians and French, preparing the way for an attack on the enemy's left. The American force under Gen. Chaffee consisted of 450 marines, tlic 14th Regiment, strong; the 9th Infantry, 800 strung; two Ilotchkiss guns, and the Fifth FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 455 Field Battery under Capt. Reilly. The Japanese division was under Gen. Yamaguchi, Gen. Fukushima being Chief of Staff, with three field batteries, and six mountain batteries. The Russians had two infantry regiments with a nominal strength of 2,000, two field batteries (eight guns each) and some squadrons of Cossacks. The French, only a few hundred in number, were infantry from Tongking, with two mountain batteries firing melinite. The enemy were intrenched in a position running roughly north-east and south-west across the river and the railway, their right resting on an embankment, their left five miles away on the other side of the river, near the fifth railway bridge, beyond which the country was inundated. The main strength of their position was in the centre where it crossed the river. PI ere was a skil- fully concealed series of rifle pits and trenches from which it would have been exceedingly difficult to dislodge a courageous enemy. On the left bank of the river their position was protected along its whole length by a canal. The combined forces of the Japanese, British, and Americans were to operate against the enemy's position on the right bank of the river, the Japanese leading the attack, the British supporting, and the Americans in re- serve, while the Russians and French, assisted by the guns of the Naval Brigade, were to operate on the left bank. About 3 A. M., the Japanese moved forward and cap- tured a battery which would have enfiladed a front at- tack on the enemy's centre. There was an artillery duel for a time, when the Japanese under a galling fire made a charge for which the Chinese did not wait, although they inflicted severe losses on the Japanese before taking flight. The whole army advanced, the Americans on the 456 CHINA IN CONVULSION left, the British in the center, and the Japanese on the right. Here and there the Chinese made some slight resistance at long range, and it was expected that they would make a stand near Pci Ts'ang where they were supposed to hold strong positions, but while they had the positions they had not the disposition to stick to them. The fight was practically over when the first trenches were rushed. Before 9 a. m., the Japanese occupied Nan Ts'ang, after which all firing ceased. The Japanese had borne the brunt of the fight, and their losses were all out of proportion to those of the other forces engaged, being estimated at about 60 killed and 240 wounded. The British lost four killed and 21 wounded, while the Americans lost none. The Russians on the left bank had six wounded. The Chinese loss in men was not large, owing to their being protected by a mud wall, but they lost " face " and lost heart, a far more important matter than the actual number killed. The whole army spent the night at Pei Ts'ang. On the morning of the 6th there was another encounter with the enemy at the ruins of the railway station of Yang Ts'un which lasted for about four hours, the Chinese being driven back on the town of Yang Ts'un, the Rus- sians shelling them, and the Bengal Lancers clearing them out of the villages. The effect of the previous day's action was throughout apparent, the enemy fight- ing in a very half-hearted manner. The heaviest losses were sustained by the Americans, 65 killed and wounded in the 14th Regiment, and nine in the 9th. The British losses were under 50, the Russians had seven killed and 20 wounded. The troops were exhausted after their two days of marching and fighting in excessive heat, and it was de- FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 457 cided to remain at Yang Ts'un during the whole of the following day, to rest the force and to wait for supplies. The advance w^as resumed on the 8th, the whole force to march thereafter on the right bank ; the Japanese in front, the Russians next, the Americans following, the British bringing up the rear, while the French were to remain at Yang Ts'un. The Japanese were quick marchers and the Russians slow, slouching along wnth frequent halts at a pace hardly exceeding a mile an hour, which greatly embarrassed the Americans in their rear, who were often compelled to halt on the sandy plains in the hot sun, while the Russians were resting in the umbrageous vil- lages in front. This fact was of importance as accounting for the large number of casualties which they suffered from the heat, the Americans and the British being obliged to do the heaviest marching in the hottest hours of the day. The superior organization and equipment of the Japan- ese were everywhere conspicuous, and their position in the front of the column gave the enemy no time to rally, so that their retreat was in reality a long and rapid flight before the agile men from the Land of the Rising Sun, who gave them no respite and no pause. Gen. Fu- kushima, the moving spirit of the pursuit, was asked if his troops were not very tired, and replied : " Yes, but so are the enemy." His plan was to keep them on the run at all costs, and it was carried through perfectly and with great suc- cess. His cavalry and mounted infantry were usually pushed ahead about three miles in advance of the main body of infantry. Whenever they got into touch with the enemy they dropped back upon the infantry, which was then extended and sent forward to go thoroughly 458 CHINA IN CONVULSION through all the villages to the right and left of the line of march. While the infantry rested after this, the cav- alry pushed on again, and the process, to the consterna- tion of the pursued, was repeated. On the morning of the 9th the Japanese shelled the Chinese out of Ho Hsi Wu, who after some skirmishing fled, leaving the place to the Japanese. The same day the Bengal Lancers and the Japanese Mounted Infantry came on a body of 200 Chinese cavalry, scattering them, killing about fifty, and capturing four banners of Gen. Sung and Gen. Ma. On the loth the main body was at Ma T'ou, and though the march was not a long one the road was lined with stragglers. The place where the Chinese had break- fasted in the morning was strewed with melon rinds. They had no commissariat and lived on what they could pick up, such as melons and Indian corn. The next day the weather was a little cooler, and to the great relief of the troops, rain fell. The army brought up at Chang Chia Wan, and the Japanese shelled the enemy out of a position south of T'ung Chou, from v.-hich they retired into that city. Early on the morning of the 12th (Sunday) the Japanese advanced to assault the east south gate, and found the city evacuated by the Chinese troops and no resistance offered to an entrance, though the city wall is strong and high and could easily have been defended. By way of saluting their own general the Japanese blew in the outer gate of the enceinte, and the city was quietly occupied. Gen. Yamaguchi issued a proclamation assur- ing safety and protection to non-combatants, and promis- ing to respect the rights of the people in their homes. The Japanese took the southern half of the city, and the French, who had now reappeared, the northern part. FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 459 The Allies spent the night of the 12th at T'ung Chou, and on the next day began the last march to Peking, now only twelve miles distant. The Japanese advanced along the stone road leading to the Ch'i Hua gate, the Rus- sians south of them, but to the north of the canal, on the road to the Tung Pien gate of the southern city. South of the canal, on the road to the same gate, marched the Americans, and still farther south, the British. It had been arranged that at a distance of three miles from Peking, the four columns were to halt, and that another conference should be held to decide on a plan of attack. But the Russians, instead of halting, marched close up to the city walls, and meeting no opposition thought it possible to effect an entrance. But they had not reached the gate before a hot rifle fire from the corner of the northern city wall met them, and their loss was heavy, including the Chief of Staff, Gen. Vasilewski. They became tangled up inside the Tung Pien gate, which had been forced open, and for many hours made no progress. The Japanese advanced to the vicinity of Ch'i Hua gate early on the morning of the 14th, working under cover of houses toward the vicinity of the gate, which they hoped to blow up. But the rifle fire from the wall was so sharp that the Japanese suffered severely, and it was decided to bombard the wall. The bombardment began about 10 A. M., and continued for some hours without much visible impression being made. Only the heaviest artillery would have breached the wall of the gate, and the number of sharp-shooters made impracticable any ap- proach to blow it up. More than a thousand shells were wasted, as well as the whole day, and nothing had been gained. It was decided to wait until night to blow up the gate. It was then successfully accomplished, the lofty 46o CHINA IN CONVULSION tower being set on fire, and the Chinese troops driven from the wall with great slaughter. All honour to the brave troops of every nation, and most of all to the sturdy Japanese ! The American troops had come early in the fore- noon to the corner of the southern city wall, near the Tung Pien gate, where some of the men scaled the wall. The main body came in at the Tung Pien gate, as the Russians had done before them, and found themselves within the southern city exposed to a heavy fire from its northern wall. Their detachment entered the southern city at about the same time as the British, but they missed their way, and it was many hours before they reached the water-gate, entering the British Legation some time after the British, a part of each of these forces forcing open the Ch'ien Men, or main gate of the wall between the cities. The British were fortunate in finding the Sha Kuo gate, on the east face of the southern city, almost en- tirely undefended, though a party of Chinese cavalry had first to be shelled out of a village in front of it. A small guard was left to hold the gate, the 24th Punjab In- fantry was sent to occupy the Temple of Heaven, and the remainder of the force advanced along the main east and west street of the city, more than half the way to its centre, when they turned north in the direction of the water-gate, in accordance with the advice previously quoted in a letter from Sir Claude MacDonald to the Commander of the Allied Forces. When the British advance emerged from the houses to the south of the canal, at some distance from the water-gate, there were still Chinese riflemen posted at the Ha Ta gate to the cast, who opened an ill-directed and ineffectual fire. The ^•^w Wi-"^" ~~^'^M * ^ — *»* ,^._,.42»*- ^, X ^ FROM TAKU TO RELIEF OF PEKING 461 first officer to enter through the gate was Major Scott, of the 1st Sikhs, accompanied by four of his men, with Capt. Pell, and Lieut. Keyes, Aides to Gen. Gaselee, who with his staff was close behind. From the water-gate by way of the Russian Legation (the only safe route) to the British Legation, was but a few minutes' walk, where the deliverers were welcomed with an outburst of joy, which to those who experienced it can never be other than a vivid recollection while life itself lasts. The Siege in Peking was raised ! Once more the Occidental had met the Oriental in a face to face death struggle, and by means of intrepid resourceful- ness, indomitable perseverance in the face of obstacles, supreme courage confronting deadly dangers, and the Superintending Providence of God, had been victorious. It was the dawning Twentieth Century victorious against the Middle Ages, a potentially glorious Future vanquish- ing an inert and lifeless Past. In it was the seed of a New China, and Hope for the Far East. XXV THE FORTIFICATIONS TECHNICALLY speaking, the Siege in Peking was over, although much still remained to be done to render the relief effective. Before add- ing anything on that head it may be well at this point to mention in somewhat fuller detail, a topic to which no justice has yet been done, but which can not be omitted altogether — siege house-keeping. Under the abnormal conditions of the siege, the exi- gencies of domestic life (if such a thing could be said to exist) deserve to be depicted by a woman's pen. Every building on the grounds was crowded, sometimes almost to the point of suffocation. The mess of Lady AlacDonald was generally about thirty-five in number, and the whole establishment was literally turned inside out for the benefit of the besieged ; Sir Claude's office and library became a hospital, the smoking-room was occu- pied by gentlemen by night, and the ball-room by ladies, while for weary officers there was, during the day, an overflow into the sleeping apartments of the ladies of the house. It would liave been difficult to suggest anything for the comfort of the sick, or for the welfare of the besieged, which was ncjt promoted by the administrators of this hosjMtablc establishment. The quarters of the legation doctor, ordinarily occu- pied in the summer by one European, or at most two, suddenly became llie abode of eight and twenty men, 462 THE FORTIFICATIONS 463 women and children, distributed into four different messes. Their servants' quarters absokitely swarmed with Chinese, and the minute back yard was always over- flowing with eager candidates for participation in the next kettle of rice, always just about ready for distribu- tion. The Customs mess (in the Escort quarters) was of variable size, the number ranging between thirty and forty, and as the dining-room was small it was neces- sar}^ to serve the meals to five different detachments, when all were on hand. But a large part — perhaps one- half — were members of the Customs volunteers, assigned to duty in various parts of the defences, oftenest in the Su Wang Fu, for a period of twenty-four hours at a time. Food had then to be sent over to them three times a day. This greatly augmented the care of so large a family, yet two capable English ladies ably and success- fully managed it all. The number of American missionaries who came in from the Methodist compound was about seventy. They were assigned to the occupancy of the church, a rectan- gular structure situated near the median line of the com- pound, measuring forty-three feet in length by twenty- five in width. On each side of the entry was a small closet, and one of these was provided with a winding stair- case to the loft. The rear of the audience room was occupied by a platform, surrounded by an altar-rail and furnished with a lectern. Passages on each side led to the small robing-room in the rear. Most of the available space in the main room was absorbed by more than a dozen large wooden seats, each with a book support in front. Trunks of all sizes were piled at the entrance, and out- side under the projecting eaves. The mattresses were 464 CHINA IN CONVULSION spread for the night wherever there was room, the dispo- sition for sleeping much resembhng the ground plan of a box of sardines. Some of the gentlemen found tempo- rary and precarious lodgment on the edges of one of the pavilions, and later, as already mentioned, in the smoking- room of the Minister's house. The two closets on each side of the entrance were soon cleared out and turned into wash-rooms, every superfluous article being relegated to the loft. At a later stage this attic was itself transformed from a lumber room into a dormitory. A high platform in the middle (representing the arch in the ceiling of the church) and the surrounding spaces in front, in the rear, and on either side, were found choked with the accumulation of the entire Legation for decades. Among the mass may be mentioned the balls and pins of the bowling-alley, huge packing-cases, iron bed-steads with- out their ropes, scores of windows used for winter fittings to the dwelling-houses, punkah fans, shelves, trunks, boxes, relics of the Queen's Jubilee in the shape of trans- parencies, lanterns by the hundred, theatre scenery, rush- mats, reed-screens, cubic yards of copies of the some- what useless treaty between Great Britain and China, and piles of legation archives and accounts, running back to the ancient days of the East India Company, — all profusely decorated with hoary cob-webs accumulated under successive ministries. L^nflcr the energetic superintendence of a few gentle- men and ladies, much of this material was removed else- where, leaving space for narrow bed-rooms in which nearly twenty persons found much better accommodation than had been before available. The loft was built to conform to the general Chinese architecture of the Lega- tion, having windows upon the cast side only, making a THE FORTIFICATIONS 465 circulation of air an impossibility — a circumstance little adapted to promote comfort in the heats of July. Yet despite a due allowance of sand-flies, fleas, and mosqui- toes, it was discovered that the inconveniences almost amounted to luxuries, and by mutual exchange of quar- ters the sick and the weary could always find some haven of comparative rest and quiet. The small room in the rear of the church, already men- tioned, was made to do duty as the only store-room for such provisions as had been gathered, or at any later period turned up. At first even a part of this was used as a ladies' bath-room, which was replaced later by the little lamp-room at the front entra,nce. Sergeant Herring obligingly gave the mess his own kitchen — a tiny one at the back of his quarters, with a small Chinese range — and had his own meals prepared on a Chinese stove on the door-step, or wherever he might be. In the effort to get all the needed articles cooked at once on this minute range, the cooks were forced to exert themselves to the utmost, every hour of the day. A small kerosene stove and a little spirit lamp were in constant use as accessories, but as there was no oven it was only possible to bake biscuit in a kerosene tin. To get quantities of food cooked at one time under such conditions, without perpetually having some of it scorched, would appear out of the question — yet it was accomplished. One of the greatest and most serious perplexities, suffi- cient to drive an Occidental cook to complete distraction, was the incessant demand upon the kitchen for hot water. It was wanted for cooking the regular meals, it was called for by the occupants of the house to which the kitchen belonged, by the marines, by the mothers of sick babies, and by the Chinese ad libitum. Fortunately two 466 CHINA IN CONVULSION large braziers were brought, which materially relieved tlic pressure on the kitchen, so that tea, coffee, and a certain amount of hot water could be provided near to the church— the kitchen being distant from it half the width of the Legation compound. It is to be borne in mind that while many were able to drink the water from the principal wells without even filtering, perhaps half of the company were less fortunate, and had to be sup- I)lied with that which had been thoroughly boiled. The indispensable utensils for cooking on a large scale were happily provided from the stock distributed by the owners of the foreign stores. Yet the provision v»as far from complete. There was a great lack of large dishes, and it was sometimes necessary to soak beans, or to make biscuit, in a wash-bowl. The dishes must often be washed in cold water, when there was no other. For it must be remembered that the first contingent of about thirty-two persons were summoned to breakfast at 6.30, and must finish their meal and make way for the second section, who at no long interval gave way to the third. (Later the three divisions were condensed into two.) Sideboards for this large company there were none, except the altar, and all the surfaces — seats, book-rests, window-sills — were uniformly aslant, aft"ording no sup- port for crockery, which had to be continually passed out through tlie window to be rewashed, a task of some difficulty during the frequent heavy rains. A similar embarrassment was felt on rainy days, in drying the dish- cloths, the supply of which never seemed to run short, being mysteriously recruited from odds and ends which turned up (table-cloths and napkins being practically and hai)pily unknown). All this unceasing round of work was carried on by three diiTer'jnt sets of cooks and servants, each of which THE FORTIFICATIONS 467 had always to hasten its work so as to be out of the way of the next relay; yet there was never a quarrel, and no friction worthy of the name. During the height of the rainy season, the only place in which to put away food was a small wire-screen safe, about a foot and a half square — there was no ice-box and no ice. A few rods distant w^as the slaughter place for ponies, haunted by millions of flies, and the only way to keep meat from their attack was to have it always covered with a cloth — a very temporary device in the hot damp days of July. There was a standing committee of three ladies who planned the menu for the three daily meals, and two others — changed each day — attended to setting the tables and saw that each meal was ready on time. The in- genuity of this committee in so planning an extremely limited diet as to make the most of it, was positively marvellous, — a housewifery that frequently served up the flesh of tough mules so that no one would have suspected its origin, and that made tasty puddings without milk, butter, or eggs. The lady in charge of the hospital kitchen also showed great skill in making palatable dishes for the wounded, and if at any time there happened to be a little left which would have spoiled before the next morning, she was invariably able to make such arrangements as to forefend that catastrophe. Little committees of the foreign Chris- tian Endeavor children busied themselves in carrying around whatever might be left on hand, distributing to those in need, and to the sick Chinese, who were always so hungry after their perpetual diet of porridge that all scraps from a foreign table were welcomed with joy. Much of the time there were sick ones among the mess wdio could not eat the coarse brown bread and the old 468 CHINA IN CONVULSION yellow rice, and for such, whatever the stress of other work, appetizing dishes were always ready. There were also wan little babies, for whom their mothers had to cook in a passage-way so narrow that if one stooped down no one else could pass, and for many, many nights these tired mothers were kept awake by the moaning of their own infants, or perhaps by the cries of some of the others, for whom no other place was open and for whose ills there was no respite and no help. In the recapitulation, all these disadvantages and inconveniences appear most formidable, but at the time they were submitted to with a patience and a courage which never once failed, and which was not a little promoted by a daily half-hour serv- ice of prayer and praise in which many passages from the Psalms, the prophecies, and the epistles, were made to become luminous with a new light, glowing like a diamond in the dark. Although this is in no sense a military history of the Siege in Peking, yet a few words in regard to the fortifi- cations of the British Legation must not be omitted. These it may be remembered were early in the siege put in charge of the Rev. F. D. Gamewell, whose edu- cation as an engineer proved a unique qualification for a unique work. At the request of Sir Claude MacDonald he also undertook in a few instances work outside of the area of the Legation and its precincts ; but this was exceptional. The barricade on the west side of the Legation Street bridge was made eight feet thick, with five feet of earth intended to stop cannon balls, for which it is probable it would have sufficed. One of the military engineers con- sidered that such an elaborate defence, each of the double walls being of the thickness named, was quite unneces- sary, but after the German losses had become ver}- heavy THE FORTIFICATIONS 469 he wished it continued. There was a similar experience of change in military opinion as to the value of thorough- going fortifications, in the Mongol Market, where the bullets penetrated fifteen and eighteen inches of rubble — or common Chinese wall. The Russian Legation was practically not fortified at all, for what reason it is difficult to comprehend, although there were barricades in some parts of the premises. At the south end of the Mongol Market lane, the barri- cade built was five feet thick, and solid. The north and south walls were reenforced so as to be always eighteen inches thick, and in no case was dependence placed on a single line of bricks, where there are sure to be many cracks, and where there is always a chance of penetration bv a stray bullet. This reenforcement continued up to a point opposite the house of the First Secretary. Beyond that the outer line began with a thickness of two feet. The importance of this was illustrated by the fact that on the very day on which Mongol Market defences were finished at 11 a. m., by 4 p. m. the Chinese had every house opposite loopholed, and twelve loopholes in a single building. The ordinary penetrating effect of the Mauser bullets on Chinese bricks was from one-half to three-quarters of an inch ; but in the case of the Mannlichers used dur- ing the closing days of the siege, the damage was much greater, — the bullets leaving deep pits, and rapidly cutting away any wall. On the last Monday morning of the siege Mr. Gamewell was called up to build extra walls to check this destructive and corrosive fire. The courts next beyond the one last mentioned were protected in the same way, under constant attack. Dur- ing all the building of fortifications, at which probably an average of fifty men were employed every day except 470 CHINA IN CONVULSION Sunday, only one man was killed, and that was due to his total disregard of repeated cautions not to expose himself unnecessarily. The barricade immediately to the west of the south stable-court was four feet in thickness, aside from the outer yard wall, and was one of the strongest in the whole line, as it was one of the most exposed to attack. It was a marvel that the two-storied house in the stable-court did not fall. Behind the stable- yard gate was a barricade three feet thick slanting to the north-west, and next beyond that was a platform built for the Italian gun, the wall being ver>' solid, and eight feet thick. The next wall was twenty inches thick, inde- pendent of the original outer wall, and very strongly built. Beyond this was a sort of fort, with five loopholes, very securely put up, and after that a rubble wall four feet in thickness, reenforced by still another substantial wall. Further to the north stood " Fort von Strauch," which was the situation of the " International " gun at the close of the siege. The gunner, Mitchell, stood behind it when he was wounded, and not to one side. Directly to the west of this, and not more than fifty feet distant, was the Chinese barricade. Still further beyond is a court which is directly under the wall of the Carriage Park, The death of the marine who was killed at the stable- court early in the siege first called the attention of the military men to the need of sand bags. Before that time they said they had enough, but it was discovered later that the director of the work of fortification was right in his consistent declaration that there would never be enough of them until the relief column reached the Lega- tion. After a time every officer was converted to the value of sand bags, and made frequent and liberal calls for them. Behind the .Students' Liljrary a deep trench was dug as THE FORTIFICATIONS 471 a countermine, between ten and twelve feet deep, and only ten inches from the wall of a two-storied building whose foundations were only three or four feet below the ground. Digging this trench was at great risk of undermining the building, but the risk of being blown up was also a serious one, and it was risk against risk. The trench was not absolutely continuous, but the main sections were connected by cavities which went from one to the other, or as nearly so as the roots of a large tree would allow. It was almost certain that this digging would have de- tected any Chinese mine, as it was 12 feet deep, and at that time of year the water line was thought to be about 13 feet. In the first court of the Hanlin a countermine was begun which extended some distance into the Car- riage Park, but it was discontinued as superfluous, and v/as a standing jest for a long time. In the Hanlin grounds the line of defence was at first weak. The second line, however, had a two foot brick wall very strongly propped, and reenforced to stand ar- tillery fire. Being short of bricks, the Vv'orkmen used a great number of the wooden plates of books, mostly poetical works in the Hanlin Library. From this point eastward to the north stable-court the whole line of wall was likewise reenforced for withstanding artillery, and there was a trench 12 feet deep just behind the de- fence for the whole length. In case this should have been rushed by the Chinese, the pavilion immediately to the rear had a loophole three and a half feet in thickness to enfilade the enemy. This pavilion, itself, by the way, was perforated with solid shot from the batteries on the Imperial City wall, seven shots striking within the space of ten feet. One of them went through a heavy post, 16 inches in diameter, and shattered one of the marble tablets let into the 472 CHINA IN CONVULSION ^vall. The book-cases of the Hanlin had been set up in the yard, and covered with tar-paper simply as covering- screens, so that the Chinese should not be able to detect the movements of the defence. A smaller pavilion in from was looplioled to prevent the approach of the enemy unseen, and there was a second strong line of defence beiiind. The larger of the two pavilions (called the Ching I T'ing) was named " Fort Strouts." Another smaller one to the north was loopholed in the same manner. At the east end of the Hanlin the artillery defences were carried up two-thirds of the way to the top, but were never wholly completed. The most eastern of the fortified positions was styled " Fort Oliphant." Immedi- ately in front of this the defences were ver}-- strong, con- sisting of an enormously thick wall, eight feet through at the base, and a trench 13 feet in depth. The steps up to the elevated sentry-posts were made of the wooden cases which when found contained the great Ming Dy- nasty Encyclopaedia, " Yung Le Ta Tien ", but were now packed solidly with earth. The strength of the Hanlin position as finally fortified was great, and if the Chinese had been able to screw up their courage to the point of a desperate charge, the positions could have been cap- tured only with the greatest difficulty, and with the sacri- fice of a great number of lives, for which happily they were at no time quite prepared. The defences of the eastern side of the Legation (the Hanlin being on the north) received perhaps more labor- ious consideration than those of any other quarter. On the 29th of June — only nine days after the siege be- gan — Col. Shiba informed Sir Claude that at the outside he should not be able to hold the Su Wang Fu more than two or three days longer. Sir Claude communicated to Mr. Camewell the information, with the comment, "You THE FORTIFICATIONS 473 should know this." The result was a most elaborate plan of defence which was a surprise alike to Chinese and to foreigners, who were perpetually asking " What is the use of all this work? " The use was to guard the Brit- ish Legation at its weakest point, in case the Su Wang Fu should be abandoned, and the Chinese should plant artillery on the high mounds of the Flower Garden be- longing to the Fu, which was separated from the Lega- tion only by the width of the canal road. The Chinese would have been able to mount guns within fifty yards (or less) of the residence of the British Minister, and it was difficult to see how any part of the Legation grounds could have then been held for an hour. The fortifications by way of defence against this danger began at the end of the north stable-court, and extended in an unbroken line to the Escort Quarters, a little north of the main gate of the Legation. The post on the roof of the cow-house at the north end was a very strong position, and a very exposed one, being much nearer to the batteries on the wall of the Imperial City than any other, as well as close to the enemy's positions which attacked the northern end of the Fu. The wall of the stables themselves on the canal front was about fifteen inches thick, and with great labour this was reenforced by a wall five feet thick, strongly braced both at top and bottom throughout its whole length. At the upper end of the stable-court there were countermines, lest the Chinese should attempt to blow up the post. The tunnel was run to the west about five feet, thence north twenty- five feet, and then east the same distance, but no sign or sound of Chinese mines was found, and the very ex- istence of the countermines was not generally known. From the stables to the Escort quarters the same plan of defence against possible cannonading was pursued 474 CHINA IN CONVULSION tliroughout, — thick and high walls made of earth well rammed down, and stoutly braced by the heaviest avail- able timbers against the buildings opposite at every point. The cannon balls and shells of the enemy received on this side did much damage. One of the three brick col- umns in the second stor>' veranda of the Minister's house was knocked down into the yard below, but extra posts were put in under the supports of the roof, so that it did not give way. On the last night of the siege one of the smaller roofs of a room adjacent to a bed-room in the Minister's house was crushed in by a shell, as already mentioned, but the injury throughout the siege from this source was surprisingly small. The discerning reader will perceive that, amid so many military men at a time of such peculiar strain, the task of a civilian charged with one of the most important duties of the defence, was one of peculiar difficulty and delicacy. The sense of responsibility was at times al- most overwhelming, and, aside from sometimes working twenty hours a day, the necessity of having the most discouraging military secrets confidentially imparted was enough to wear out the constitution of one in the most robust health. Perhaps in no other order throughout the entire siege did Sir Claude MacDonald exhibit to better advantage sterling good sense, than in placing Mr. Gamewell in a position absolutely free from military interference of any kind, with responsibility to the Commander in Chief only. When this fact was thoroughly established, all occasion for friction disappeared, and the civil and the military defence dove-tailed into one another in an ad- mirable and most effective way. At the close of the siege Mr. Camcwcll received a cordial letter from Sir Claude acknowledging the common ol)ligations to him ^A THE SIX "FIGHTING PARSONS" AND SERGEANT MURPHY AT FORT COCKBURN THE FORTIFICATIONS 475 for his services, and j\Ir. Conger in a similar note justly added that " to you more than to any other man we owe. under God, our preservation." A few days after the relief forces arrived, one of the British subjects who had been through the siege took occasion to ask Gen. Gaselee what he thought of " our infant fortifications ? " Gen. Gaselee replied that he was greatly surprised at the extent and the effectiveness of the defence conducted, and especially with the amount of work done in the time at the disposal of the besieged ; and that the fortifications and everything connected with the defence were " beyond all praise." In the official report of the events connected with the siege of the Legations, Sir Claude MacDonald states that an important effort to betray the Legations was only dis- covered after they had been relieved. " Among some documents seized by the German troops was found a letter addressed to the General commanding at the Ha Ta gate on the subject of mines. The writer had been a teacher at tlie British Legation in the employ of Her Majesty's Government for four years, and was well known to the student interpreters ; together with all other teach- ers he disappeared about the middle of June. The letter was dated the beginning of July, and pointed out that the General's methods of attacking the Legation were faulty, and were bound to lead to considerable loss in the future as they had done in the past. The proper method of attack, the writer said, was by mining; to assist the General in his attack he enclosed a correct plan of the British Legation, with which he was well acquainted, and marked on the plan the most suitable place for the mine to be driven. Eager inquiries have been made, since the siege was raised, for the writer of the letter, but as yet he has not been found." The fact that with such de- 476 CHINA IN CONVULSION tailed treachery as this freely offered to the Chinese, they failed to drive a single mine under any part of the long front of the British Legation, adds one more to the already long list of surprises connected with the defence. In view of the supreme importance of the subject it may be worth while to devote a little space to a brief summary of some of the foregoing aspects of the defence of the Legations, by a competent military authority, Lieut. Col. Scolt-Aloncrieff, of the Royal Engineers, who con- tributed an article on the subject to the " Royal Engineers Journal" (April, 1901.) Only a few points can be se- lected. The reader is indebted to him for the excellent map of the defences which accompanies this volume. " The first thing which strikes one on looking at the plan of the whole defensive position is the enormous number of buildings crowded together on the ground. Even in this respect the plan comes short of the truth, for if the houses had all been actually drawn it would have added to the confused mass of buildings shown, in such a way as to obscure essential points. " Some of the Legation compounds and yards have many trees standing in them. The trees were both a help and a hindrance to the besieged. They obscured the look-out, tended to spread conflagration when a fire broke out, and falling branches were often a source of danger ; but they afforded some protection, and prevented the enemy from seeing in. The massive and heavy roofs of the Chinese buildings though giving considerable com- mand were not much taken advantage of by the assailants. The two-storied houses in the Legation, though heavily bombarded, acted most efficiently as traverses, so that it was quite possible to move about freely inside the de- fended area. This was very much noticed by the relieving force wht-n they entered. The noise of the musketry and THE FORTIFICATIONS 477 machine guns was incessant, projectiles of all sorts were whistling overhead, yet on the lawn-tennis court of the British Legation ladies were moving about so freely that it was like a garden-party. The defences of the British Legation were, by all consent, the strongest and best of any of the works in any part of the position. The engi- neer who devised and superintended them was an Ameri- can missionary, the Rev. F. D. Gamcwell. He was one of a considerable number of American missionaries who were sheltered during the siege in the Chapel of the British Legation, and whose skill in organization and cheerful energy contributed largely to the comfort and well-being of the garrison. " There were no engineers, military or civil, among the garrison of the British Legation. Mr. Gamewell made it his business to be always working at and improving the defences. Walls liable to artillery fire were strength- ened and strutted. Walls supporting roofs, or in any way doubtful, were propped and buttressed, traverses were made in every possible passage, openings and communica- tions were made freely throughout the defensive line, barricades and flanking caponiers were made in every place where it was possible they might be needed, deep trenches were sunk across every part where the enemy might be expected to mine, the upper stories of houses were barricaded, loopholed and strengthened, and above all in every place ample head cover was given to the firing line, so that only as much of the man as came opposite the loophole was exposed. " On the west of the British Legation in one of the large sheds of the Imperial Carriage Park, the enemy be- gan a mine, the failure of which is very instructive. They started in the direction of a strong barricade and breast- work inside of our works in the Hanlin. Thev were 478 CHINA IN CONVULSION heard at work, and a countermine was started, which however, did not go far. The enemy apparently heard the countermine, and changed direction to their right, heading for the Students' Quarters, a double-storied building close to the boundary wall. They seem to have lost their bearings, and kept edging off to the right, so that they worked round in an almost complete semi-circle, and ultimately were heading away from their objective. This was afterward discovered, when, after the relief was accomplished the mine was opened. It was found that the atmosphere in the mine was so foul that it was impossible to keep a light burning, and as the Chinese were probably working in the dark, it is little wonder that they missed their way. The difficulty of keeping the true direction of a small mine gallery, even when one has the aid of lantern and compass, is well known, and in this case the enemy were probably unable to use any such assistance. Some empty powder-boxes and powder- hose were found in the mine, but no charge. " The last and most furious assault on the Legations was delivered on the 13th and 14th of August, when the enemy knew it was their last chance. But the defences were sound and the hearts of the defenders good, for relief at last was near. The closeness of the attack may be gauged by the fact that when Major Scott and his Sikhs, who were the first to enter the Legation, relieved the Marines of the Legation Guard at the Mongol Market 1)arricades, and were greeted with cheers, they at once received a volley of brickbats from the enemy a few yards off ! " It was gratifying intelligence to all who were interested in the work of the siege and its results, to know that so many who tcx>k an active part in it were promptly re- warded by a due recognition of their services. THE FORTIFICATIONS 479 The last six pages of the British White Book, (China N. 4, 1900) are exclusively occupied with dispatches from Sir Claude MacDonald to the Marquis of Salisbury, calling attention to the singular services of a great number of individuals, both military and civil, including almost every nationality. Among those selected for honourable mention were Capt. Halliday, already mentioned, who fought with conspicuous courage at close quarters ; Capt. Poole, who was not absent from duty for a single day or night during the whole 55 days; and Capt. Strouts, who was killed. The British Volunteers, among whose number David Oliphant and Henry Warren were killed, are highly commended. Mr. Dering, Second Secretary of the British Legation was in charge of important defences. He was always alert, and had also the difficult task of deciding what ponies or mules should be killed for food, each of the owners naturally being desirous of reserving his own as long as possible. Mr. Cockbum, Chinese Secretary, was both a Volunteer, and in charge of the very important correspondence between the British Minister and the enemy. His house was an especial target of shells and rifle bullets. He was ably seconded by Mr. Ker the Sec- ond Chinese Secretary. Capt. Percy Smith, a retired officer, was especially useful on the city wall in difficult and dangerous circumstances. Mr. Clarke-Thornhill, formerly of the Diplomatic Service, was an active and willing Volunteer. The Rev. Frank Norris,, Chaplain of the Legation, ren- dered invaluable services outside of his especial duties, in work with pick and shovel in the trenches and on the barricades ; and also in taking charge of and encouraging the Chinese converts in their work on the defences. He was always ready, willing, and cheerful; though severely 48o CHINA IN CONVULSION wounded by the explosion of a shell in the Su Wang Fu, he stuck to his work, and was at all times a splendid example to those about him. Mr. Tours of the Consular Staff, aiid :Mr. Tweed of the Hongkong and Shanghai Bank, were indefatigable as captains of the Fire Brigade, which several times saved the Legation. The former had such arduous duties that at the close of the siege his health gave way completely, and for a long time he hovered betw^een life and death. Dr. Morrison, Correspondent of " The Times ", acted as Lieutenant to Capt. Strouts, and rendered most valuable services. Active, energetic, and cool, he volunteered for every service of danger, and was a pillar of strength when matters were going badly. By his severe wound on the 1 6th of July his valuable services were lost to the de- fence for the rest of the siege. All the Student Inteqjreters are warmly praised. They behaved with pluck and dash, yet a steadiness under fire worthy of veteran troops. The Volunteers belonging to the Imperial Maritime Customs likewise distinguished themselves, and soon after the siege received the promo- tion which they had so well earned. Mr. Nigel Oliphant took an important part on several occasions until he was seriously wounded, on the i8th of July. In another supplementary dispatch Sir Claude asks that the thanks of the British Government be conveyed to Lieut. Baron von Rahden, of the Imperial Russian Navy ; Capt. Myers, U. S. Marines (wounded) ; Lieut. Darcy, French Navy (wounded) ; Lieut. Baron von Soden, Imperial Ger- man Marines; Lieut. Paolini, Italian Navy (wounded); and Lieut. Hara, Japanese Navy. In addition to these, the skill, tenacity, and courage of Lieut. Col. Shiba, of the Japanese contingent, are mentioned as worthy of all pa o <; -I in^ >>^ T=nr THE FORTIFICATIONS 481 praise. His dispositions were taken with the greatest skill, and he contested every inch of ground, thereby giving time for the defences of the British Legation to be put in order; and as a direct effect of this the lives of very many of the garrison were saved. Don Livio Caetini, Second Secretary of the Italian Legation, is commended to his Government for his de- votion and ability, having never once quitted his post, which was a barricade exposed to a very severe shell and rifle fire. M. von Strauch, a member of the Imperial Maritime Customs, formerly an officer of the Prussian army, was in command of the Customs Volunteers, and was of the greatest assistance to Sir Claude, who was much struck by his zeal and intrepidity. He and Dr. Velde of the Hospital are especially commended to the German Government. M. Fliche, an ex-ofificer of the French Cavalry, was an orderly constantly under fire, and for his gallantry was recommended to the notice of the French Government. The United States has few methods, aside from the vote of special thanks by Congress, of accomplishing the highly desirable objects aimed at in the decorations and honours thus worthily bestowed. It was therefore the greater gratification to the besieged and their friends to find in Washington telegrams of Jan. 4th, 1901, the fol- lowing : " The British Ambassador has communicated to the Secretary of State a dispatch recently received by him from the Alarquis of Lansdowne, commending the gallant conduct of certain Americans who distinguished them- selves last summer during the attacks on the Legation quarter in Peking. The text of the dispatch is as follows : " My Lord : With reference to my preceding dispatch of this day's date, I have to inform you that Sir C. Mac- 482 CHINA IN CONVULSION Donald has brought to my notice the conduct of certain gentlemen who particularly distinguished themselves dur- ing the attacks on the Legation quarter, and who gave invaluable assistance both to him personally and to the defence in general. " Sir Claude mentions the names of the Rev. F. D, Gamewell of the iVmerican Methodist Alission, and Her- bert G. Squiers, Secretary of the U. S. Legation. He states tliat the Rev. F. D. Gamewell carried out the entire de- fences of the British Legation, and that these defences have excited the admiration of the officers of the various nationalities who have since inspected them. As a tribute to their excellence he mentions that notwithstanding a constant rain of rifle-fire during the five weeks of the siege, not a single woman or child in the Legation suf- fered. He adds that a deep debt of gratitude is owed to him by all the besieged. " Herbert Squiers acted in the capacity of Sir Claude's Chief-of-Staff after the death of Captain Strouts of the Royal Marines. Sir Claude says that his earlier services in the United States army were of great use in the de- fence, and that he can not speak too highly of his zeal and ability. The barricades on the Tartar wall were designed and carried out by him, and under Sir Claude's orders he drew the plan for the entry of the troops which was conveyed to Gen. Gaselee by a messenger let down from the wall. " I request that you will bring the names of these two gentlemen to the favourable notice of the United States Government, and express the appreciation felt by Her Majesty's Government of their eminent services. (Signed) Lansdowne." This series of graceful recognitions of merit is fitly THE FORTIFICATIONS 483 concluded by the following dispatch to Sir Claude Mac- Donald, published in the White Book relating to the siege in Peking. Foreign Office, Feb. loth, 1901. " As the present report completes your account of the siege and relief of the Legations, I desire to take this opportunity of stating how highly His Majesty's Govern- ment value these admirable and exhaustive records of an episode of the deepest historical interest. The gallantr)^ with which the siege was maintained by all the foreign forces engaged, more especially after the failure of the first relief expedition, and the consequent disappointment of the besieged, coupled with the energy and courage with wdiich the efforts of the regular forces were seconded by the Legation Staffs and other civilians, has commanded the admiration of the whole civilized world. " His Majesty's Government desire also to place on record their appreciation of the important part borne by yourself throughout this crisis. On the 22nd of June at the request of your colleagues you took charge of the defence, a position for which from your military train- ing you possessed exceptional qualifications ; and from that day you continued to direct the operations of the garrison until the relief took place on the 14th of August. "Information has reached His Majesty's Government from various sources that the success of the defence was largely due to your personal efforts, and more particularly to the unity and cohesion which you found means of estab- lishing and maintaining among the forces of so many different nationalities operating over an extended area. Competent eye-witnesses have expressed the opinion that if it can be said that the European community owe their lives to any one man more than another, where so many 484 CHINA IN CONVULSION distinguished themselves, it is to you that they are in- debted for their safety. " I can not conclude this dispatch without asking you to convey to Lady MacDonald the thanks of His Majesty's Government for her unceasing and devoted attention to the welfare of the sick and wounded. Her work and that of the ladies who assisted her have earned the last- ing gratitude not only of those who were benefited by her ministrations, but also of their relatives in Europe who were kept for so many weeks in a condition of most painful anxiety and suspense. Lansdowne." XXVI AFTER THE SIEGE WHEN the relieving columns marched into the Peking Legations they received a glad wel- come from all the besieged, who had been look- ing for their coming with such mingled fears and hopes. But it was soon evident from the bearing of the rescuers, as well as from their remarks,, that they were considerably disappointed in us. They found a large number of gentle- men and ladies going about as they would have done under ordinary circumstances, except that many of them were on sentry duty. The specific occasion of the disap- pointment felt and expressed seemed to be that the be- sieged did not look sufficiently pinched with hunger, and that some of them — especially the ladies — were far too well dressed, and met the relieving army witli glad smiles and cheers, instead of bursting into hysterical sobs. As one of the bright young women phrased it, " they seem to have expected to find us lying gasping on the ground." Several of the besieged were only visitors in Peking who had been caught in the eflfort to leave on the very day when trains finally ceased to run, and these ladies, at least, had lost none of their belongings. All the rest, however, displayed the singular feminine talent for mak- ing a little go a great way in dress, as they had done in food, and even under the most depressing circum- stances of lack of changes of raiment, of persistently rainy weather and absence of all ordinary facilities for washing 48s 486 CHINA IN CONVULSION clothes, not to say for starching and ironing, often blos- somed out in attire which showed no signs of hard usage or of age. All the ladies alike appeared to rise to the occasion in a way to make one proud of the civilization of the West, which has found so large a place for the energy and the diversified talent of the fair sex. The wives of the American and the Russian Ministers were especially as- siduous in working for the comfort of those who were wounded and in the hospital, giving up anything and everytliing for their comfort. When the detail for clean- ing the hospital failed to appear, Madame de Giers one day seized the mop herself and more than made good his place. Many of the women, through the entire siege, were quite as cool and as courageously hopeful as the men. During the severest attacks they sat diligently working on the sand bags without pause, nor was there ever any- thing in the smallest degree approximating a panic. Noth- ing at the time (nor in subsequent calm review) appeared more surprising than the cool way in which everything about the siege was taken as a matter of course, and the facility with which the necessary adjustments were swiftly and tactfully made by all the women alike, and pre- eminently by those who chanced to have any especial re- sponsibility placed upon them. During the whole of the siege the numerous children played about the grounds, and seldom with any restraint upon their movements. They paraded as " Boxers," and as companies of soldiers sent to arrest Boxers. The small- est mites had their little flags and cartridge-belts, and joined in the incessant sport. They made deep holes in inconvenient situations, but as these were said to be for " bomb-proofs " they could not be disturbed. They tugged AFTER THE SIEGE 487 at heavy bricks and timbers which were placed in pre- posterous positions to be regarded as defences. They filled tiny sacks, made for their especial use, with earth, and heaped them up passim, to guard the works which they had constructed. On one occasion a redoubt of this sort built by infants of the " Number four " size, was totally demolished by some of those of the " Number ten " variety, to the in- dignation of the justice loving mammas, who remonstrated w^ith the big boys for their harsh treatment of the little ones. But the leader of the attacking party drew him- self up proudly and replied : " In time of war they ought to have put a guard over their works, or else they might expect to have them captured ! " As there seemed to be some reason in this military view of the case, the matter was dropped. On another occasion some children of missionaries were seen throwing stones at another com- pany of lads, who were returning the compliment ; but upon inquiry each side hastened to explain that " They were trying to break down our barricades, and we wouldn't let them." It has been already mentioned that there was a foreign child born during the progress of the siege, a circum- stance which was commemorated in the name bestowed upon him — " Siege Moore." There were probably several Chinese babies introduced into the world at the same inauspicious epoch, but of these there is no record. More than one of the Chinese schoolgirls was married during the early days of the imprisonment, as their parents could not take care of them, and they could not otherwise go to their prospective homes. Of the number of Chinese who died of wounds, or of illness, it is impossible to speak with any accuracy, as it was impracticable to collect satisfactory information. It 4b'8 CHINA IN CONVULSION has been already mentioned that the mortaUty among Chinese children was very heavy. Six foreign infants succumbed to the hardships of the time. The following semi-oflficial table of casualties among the defenders of the Legations is of great interest, but it ought to be understood that it docs not represent the final account, which is perhaps not to be had in a completely accurate shape. When the marines left Peking, a few too weak to be removed remained in the hospital. The very first British marine to be wounded (Sawyer) was the last one to die, long after his comrades had gone back to their ship. Something similar may have been true of some of the wounded in other detachments. As soon as the ter- rible strain of the siege was over, most of those who were able to do so left Peking, and many of them left China. Among them were several who seemed to be in perfect health, only " a bit tired." Casualties among Volunteers during Siege in Peking. LEGATIONS. American . Austrian . . British . . . French . . . , German . . , Japanese . , talian . . . , Russian . , Totals Killed. *3 3 Wounded. 23 Total Killed. 7 4 6 13 13 10 7 7 67 Total Wounded. II II 26 42 16 29 12 20 167 1 Bftron von Ketteler, German Minister. « Mr. von Cordes. Chinese Secretary, German Legation. * Including SurReon Captain Ando. * Including Mr. Wagner, a Frenchman in the Imperial Maritime Customs, AFTER THE SIEGE 489 P u . . • w c« ' 1 u; IJ fl " " • • • h- en U 3 tnoo w ir> c • r^ < • 00 e ¦ ¦ < •d u CO Tt Tl- i-i Tt "* • Ci. c I-^M -}-r^M Tt y* rr . vn 3 M c«^ M r- cnoo ¦^ N • CO < •d ir> rf r^ m w C M u cjMcnNC'iOTl-r • CO OS u a. 3 >-i M C4 N M M . M coooco r-»irii-i MOO • Q M CO M W M M CO • D M Q a p ; c* M CO C< • • • ll w ¦ ^ 1> E Q S tn g M h • Qq S «3 Oo oi? « w'^ ;-c . M M N • • • Ti- K^b. JO \ ' '. '. w t CO 0^ "^ tI-oo ^ 00 • incot^'^uic< e< r- 00 • ^ * CO • a Ul COmCOtOWMMO • i6 C tc :z c " bO < & 6 3T c < < PC ft C ^ ¦V— p^; • • ' en M CO Tl-00 1 00 CO iri CO C4 CO vO 6 1-1 m 00 CO • M M -*o " ; M w CO w M M HI c« II "a C 490 CHINA IN CONVULSION A fearfully long list of deaths has to be added to these tables, which cannot without danger of serious omissions catalogue those who, in places widely distant from each other, and at intervals of weeks or of months, lost their lives as a direct consequence of the Siege in Peking. The tables will therefore be understood to refer to the time when the siege was raised, and not to the final result. The incidental references to the International Hos- pital, which constituted so important a part of our re- cui^erative energies, should be supplemented by a few notes, most of which are culled from an article by a British lady physician well qualified to write on the sub- ject. The large proportion of the medical faculty represented among the besieged was truly remarkable. Altogether there were, of all nationalities, twenty men and women with medical and surgical degrees, including Dr. Ts'ao, a Chinese physician of the American Methodist Mission, and a retired naval surgeon. The Hospital was opened on the day after the siege began, Drs. Poole and Velde being the staff. The women doctors were asked to nurse, which they gladly did. There were two trained nurses, and other ladies to help. The physicians who had to leave home at an hour's notice had of course few drugs and dressings. The British Le- gation was poorly stocked, as Dr. Poole had only just come out. Fortunately Dr. Velde had a large supply, all of the German army type, — iodoform gauze tied up in little packets very much compressed, to be cut into strips, with white muslin gauze squares, about five inches each way, folded and compressed into another very small pack- age. He had also a sterilizer, which later had to be used when muslin curtains took the place of the white gauze, AFTER THE SIEGE 491 and bags of peat or saw-dust that of wool. Instruments were always sterilized for operation. To most of the assistants the experience of shot and shell was new. The hospital first occupied two rooms in the Chancery bungalow, but gradually, as the number of the wounded grew, more rooms had to be taken over, until there were an operating-room with two tables ; five wards and beds for five patients in the hall ; a conva- lescent ward for officers and civilians in Lady MacDon- ald's house, and another for marines elsewhere. Three American ladies superintended the kitchen and stores ; they were beyond all praise. The Hospital had of course first claim to commissariat stores, but nowhere else was there such fragrant pony- soup, such really eatable mule stew. Officers and men ap- peared to think it worth while to be slightly wounded to get a few days' good feeding. Owing to the difficulty of ** diverse tongues " the men were " warded " by nationality wherever possible, — at any rate no man was in a room where he could not talk to some one. Italians and French were together, with a French Sister in charge; Russians were in another room, where they were most tenderly cared for by Madame de Giers, herself. The Germans were often put with them and one room was always full of the bright, interesting little Japanese. English and Americans naturally went together. There was one ward for officers and civilian volunteers, and here were nursed British, American, German, French, Italian, Austrian, Dutch, Australian, and Russian. It was wonderful how the stores and supplies came in — beds and bedding, shirts, and all that was necessary. They represented very much self-denial on the part of some, and exhibited many expedients. The under pillows were made of straw from the packing of 492 CHINA IN CONVULSION wine bottles, cidcr-dowii quilts were cut up for soft pillows, a long piece of Chefoo silk found in the Aiongol jMarket made shirts, as did best damask linen and bright yellow cotton. " Imperial " shirts these were called. There w ere very few bedsteads ; matresses were placed on tl:!e floor, but every man did have a mattress from somewhere, as well as sheets and pillows. The families of some of the Legation people went with- out mosquito curtains for the whole siege, that the men in the Hospital might be supplied with this luxury — al- most, indeed, a necessity. Some of the marines had first- aid dressings in their haversacks, but the civilian volun- teers had none, so that their wounds were not cared for until their arrival at the Hospital. The character of the wounds was not that of open warfare, for the fighting was all behind barricades. Con- sequently the proportion of head injuries was large. Sec- ondary operations, undertaken on account of symptoms, often disclosed bits of material — shirt or trousers — which had been driven into the wound, or the missing bullet or fragment of shell. The proportion of shell wounds was small, only one, of the face proving fatal. There were three perforating woimds of the larynx. Two cases of compound fracture of tibia developed tetanus, each of which was fatal. A case of strychnine poison has been already alluded to. Chloroform inhalation, continued for two and a half hours, followed by the stomach pump, brought about re- covery, and the second day the man was dressed, return- ing to duty the day following. Towards the close of the siege several cases were in- valided with diarrhoea and dysentery. Among the Rus- sians there were two deaths from the latter, but they were AFTER THE SIEGE 493 known to be exceedingly careless about their drinking water. There were three cases of typhoid, one of which died after removal to Tientsin. With the exception of the two tetanus cases, there was during the siege no death of any one who survived his injury twenty-four hours. No hospital notes were kept during the siege, which was a cause of regret, but no one had the time. At the Pei T'ang, explosion from mines was the cause of most of the casualties. In his dispatch to the Marquis of Salisbury regarding the conduct of the defences. Sir Claude MacDonald makes especial reference to the Hospital, and to the two physicians in charge. During the siege 166 cases passed through the Hospital, twenty suffering from illness, the rest surgical cases. Owing to the devotion and skill of the two medical officers, no of the wounded were eventually discharged cured. Dr. Poole was inde- fatigable at his work, always sympathetic and cheer- ful. The wounded of all nationalities spoke most warmly of his devotion and skill. At the conclusion he was struck down with fever of a very danger- ous description, and had to be invalided. The sick-bay steward, Mr. Fuller, is highly commended for his care and gentle treatment of the wounded, and the willing and cheerful manner in which he carried out his duties. Miss Myers and Miss Brazier daily filtered the water for the Hospital (a task by no means easy with a hand-pump filter) and carried it there themselves, often with bullets and shells bursting in the trees overhead. Several of the ladies received, for their tireless labors in nursing the sick, the well merited order of the Red Cross. Miss Jessie Ransome was personally decorated by King Ed- ward, while Miss Lambert of the Anglican Mission, Miss 494 CHINA IN CONVULSION Abbie Chapin of the American Board, and Miss Dr. Saville of the London Mission, received the decoration in China. Immediately upon the conchision of the siege, the Americans met and adopted resolutions recognizing their obligations to the Marines by whom they had been de- fended for so long a time, to Sir Claude MacDonald, Her Britannic Majesty's Minister, and to Minister Con- ger. From the latter the following communication was received at about the same time: " Peking, August i8, 1900. " The Besieged American Missionaries : " To one and all of you, so providentially saved from threatened massacre, I beg in this hour of our deliverance to express what I know to be the universal sentiment of the Diplomatic Corps, the sincere appreciation of and profound gratitude for the inestimable help which you and the native Christians under your charge have ren- dered toward our preserv^ation. Without your intelligent and successful planning, and the uncomplaining execu- tion of the Chinese, I believe our salvation would have been impossible. " By your courteous consideration of me, and your con- tinued patience under most trying occasions, I have been most deeply touched, and for it all I thank you most heartily. I hope and believe that somehow, in God's un- erring plan, your sacrifices and danger will bear rich fruit in the material and spiritual welfare of the people to whom you have so nobly devoted your lives and work. " Assuring you of my personal respect and gratitude, believe me, Very sincerely yours, E. H. Conger." INDEX TO GROUP OF AMERICAN MISSIONARIES. I. Rev. G. W. Verily 26. 2. Miss Amy Brown 27- 3. Mrs. A. H. Smith 28. 4- Rev. \V. T. Hobart 29. 5- Rev. John Wherry, D.D. 30. 6. Rev. W. F. Walker, D.D. 31- 7- J. H. Ingram, M.D. 32. 8. Rev. H. E. King 33. 9- Rev. G. R. Davis 34- 10. Rev. A. H. Smith, D.D. 35. II. Rev. C. A. Killic 36. 12. Rev. W. B. Stelle 37. rs- Rev. Gilbert Reid, D.D. 38. 14. Miss Grace Newton 39- 15- Miss Luella Miner 40. 16. Miss Nellie Russell 41. 17- Miss Maud Mackey, M.D. 42. 18. Miss Elizabeth Martin 43- 19. Mrs. F. D. Gamewell 44. 20. Miss Gertrude Gilman 45- 21. Miss Anna Gloss, M.D. 46. 22. Mrs. C. M. Jewell 47- 23- Miss Gertrude Wyckoff 48. 24. Miss Ada Haven 49- 25- Mrs. Howard Gait SO. Mrs. J. H. Ingram Rev. F. M. Chapin Miss Janet McKillican Mrs. Gilbert Reid and child Miss Eliza Leonard, M.D. Mrs. C. A. Killie Miss Alice Terrell M iss Jane Evans Mrs. C. Goodrich Mrs. W. F. Walker Miss Emma E. Martin, M.D. Mrs. C. E. Ewingand child Mrs. F. M. Chapin Miss Mary Andrews Mrs. J. L. Mateer Rev. C. Goodrich, M.D. Miss D. M. Douw Miss Ruth Ingram and sister Miss Grace Goodrich Miss Esther Walker Miss Marion Ewing Miss Dorothea Goodrich Master Carrin},'ton Goodrich Master Ernest Chapin Master Ralph Chapin The following American Missionaries were not on hand when ilie picture wasukcn: Rev. F. D. Gamewell, Dr. G. D. Lowry. Rev. C. E. Ewing, Rev. W. S. Ament, D.D., Rev. and Mrs. C. H. Fennand family, Rev. J. L. Whiting, Dr. and Mrs. J. Inglis, Rev. Howard Gait, Miss Bessie McCoy, Miss Abbie Chapin, Miss A. H. Gowans, Miss II. E Rutherford and Miss Grace Wyckoff. AFTER THE SIEGE 495 Three days previous to this, Sir Claude had written to the Chairman of the General Committee, as follows: " British Legation, Peking, Aug. 15, 1900. " Dear Mr. Tewksbury : " I have been busy these last few days, and feel quite worn out, otherwise this letter would have been written before. " I want to express to the American members of the Committee of General Comfort my high appreciation of the good work they did during the siege, and of the ready and loyal manner in which they anticipated my every wish. " With such men to work with, work becomes a pleas- ure, and is bound to be crowned with success. This remark applies to all the American missionaries who took part with me in the siege. Their work and support were un- stinted, intelligent, and most loyal, and I have no hesi- tation in saying that I consider that their presence in the Legation saved the situation. Yours very truly, Claude M. MacDonald." A few days later, the following telegram from the President of the United States was received by the Min- ister: " The whole American people rejoice over your deliver- ance, over the safety of your companions of our own and other nations, who have shared your trials and privations ; the fortitude and courage which you have all maintained, and the heroism of your little band of defenders. We all mourn for those who have fallen, and acknowledge the goodness of God which has preserved you, and guided the brave army that set you free. Wm. McKinley." 496 CHINA IN CONVULSION Two Jays later the following communication from the Queen was received by Sir Claude MacDonald. " Warmest congratulations on your safety, after such a terrible time of anxiety to us all. Trust you, Lady Mac- Donald, and children are well as well as the others. V. R. I." A separate telegram was sent from the same source. " To the Officer Commanding the British Marine Guard : I thank God that you and those under your command are rescued from your perilous situation. We, my people and I, have waited with the deepest anxiety for the good news of your safety, and a happy termination to your heroic and prolonged defence. I grieve for the losses and sufferings experienced by the besieged. V. R. I." The siege in Peking was scarcely raised before many of those whose homes were in the city, hastened to visit the sites of their dwellings, to see in what condition they then were. Most of them were found to resemble the premises of the Methodist Mission, where the Americans had been in a state of semi-siege for twelve days. On these spacious grounds, in three distinct divisions, sepa- rated from one another by intervening streets, had been seven dwelling houses, three chapels, two boys' schools, one large girls' school, two training schools, two hos- pitals, two dispensaries, and eight native houses. The University of Peking: was a large two-story building en- closed by a high wall, on extensive grounds. AFTER THE SIEGE 497 When it became possible to revisit this familiar spot, one could have ridden on horse-back everywhere except where the cellars of the buildings had left dangerous pits. It was difficult to find anywhere a whole brick, and aside from occasional sheets, or parts of sheets, of galvanized- iron roofing, it was difficult to find anything whatever to suggest for what the premises had been used. From all the compounds together not enough splinters of wood could have been gathered to kindle a fire. The outer walls of the premises, as well as those of the buildings, had been excavated down to the bottom of the founda- tions, to remove every brick, and every tree had been not only cut down, but dug up by the roots, so that the exact situation of each could be determined by the deep and irregular holes. The only exception was a fine old tree standing just within the main gate, upon which the notices and bulletins had been daily posted during the semi-siege. Why this was spared is somewhat of a mystery, unless it may have been supposed to be the abode of a spirit ; but it served as a landmark without which it was difficult to determine where anything had once stood. On the University campus a flock of an hundred sheep, intended for the use of the troops, were quietly grazing. Few Chinese were anywhere to be seen. Many of the neighbouring dwellings were destroyed together with the Mission property, either through accident, from revenge, or in gratification of the wild instinct of promoting universal ruin. Most of the neighbouring court-yards were found full of bricks and other looted material, but only a trifling fraction of that which had been lost could be recovered. The large bell of the church had been buried but was afterwards exhumed, on the locality becoming known. This process of sepulture for compromising 498 CHINA IN CONVULSION articles was one of which the Chinese made great use, especially in the concealment of rails and ties from the railway, but in many cases unfriendly informers made the last state of those who had ventured upon this method far worse than the first. The condition of the Methodist compounds may serve as a type of all the premises destroyed in Peking. In a few instances walls were left standing as if to mark where the buildings had once been, but this was excep- tional. In almost every compound there was the same monotony of absolute and total destruction, unrelieved and hopeless. The total amount of property destroyed belonging to the various Protestant missions in Peking, has not been exactly ascertained, but approximately it may be said to comprise thirty-four dwelling houses, eighteen chapels, eleven boys' schools and one university, eleven girls' schools, four training schools, eleven dispensaries and eight hospitals, besides more than thirty summer-houses at the western hills, and several others at the sea-side. Within a few days of the arrival of the troops, the Protestant Cemetery at the southwest corner of Peking was visited, and it was found that the tales which had been told of its condition were only too true. All the enclosing walls had been pulled down, and even the foun- dations were dug up. The long avenue of trees, nearly forty years old, had been destroyed, monuments had been overthrown and broken into fragments, and thirteen of the graves had been opened and the bodies removed ; some of them had evidently been used for a bonfire, only a few fragments of bones and here and there a metal button remaining to tell the tale. This sava,cj:cry, so alien to the usual Chinese respect for the dead, differentiates the Boxer rising from any i*V'';% so that they are in the safe custody of all the Powers, while not accessible to any one solely — least of all to the Chinese. Surely the humiliation of a great Empire could scarcely go lower than this. On the first of May these records were restored to the custody of the Chinese officials appointed to take them over, but one of the terms of settlement between China and the Powers involves the abolition of the Yamen as a Bureau — the only fit manner of dealing with this cum- brous and exasperating piece of Oriental machinery. The questions with regard to the survival of the rec- ords of Chinese yamens and other public offices in Peking, is naturally one of much interest to the Chinese them- selves. From repeated and diversified inquiries one seems justified in inferring that as a rule there is noth- ing whatever left of the documents of any of the six Boards, or of the public offices of any sort with the excep- tion of the Tsung Li Yamen. Among the numerous offices for preparing the ma- terials for future histories, are two historiographers' THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 545 bureaus, the one belonging- to the State and called the Kuo Shih Kuan, which is situated in the Imperial City, inside the Tung Hua Men. The records of the Emper- or's sayings and doings were kept in the Ch'i Chii Chu which was located, as we are told, within the limits of the Hanlin Courts. When the latter were attacked, the records were prudently moved to the Kuo Shih Kuan for safe keeping. A Chinese teacher who visited the place, ascertained its present condition. He reported that it was closed, but that the contents have long since been scattered to the winds of heaven. During the anarchy following upon the occupation of Peking, whoever had a mind to do so visited the place and carried off whatever he chose for waste paper, and although there may be some parts of the archives remaining, nothing is said to be complete, and all might as well be lacking. On the night of the 4th of June, 190 1, a building called the Wu Ying Tien in the southwest comer of the For- bidden City was destroyed by a fire, the origin of which was disputed. It was a Throne Hall, or Imperial Pavil- ion, and its contents were archives of State, edicts, rec- ords, books, and blocks of governmental works, and attached to it were the Recording Office and the office of one of the Grand Secretaries. It was the final act in a long series of conflagrations and destruction, the ulti- mate efifect of which can not fail to be far-reaching. The Astronomical Observatory situated on the eastern wall of the city, and containing the ancient and wonder- ful products of the genius of the early Jesuits in China, Verbiest and Schall, was speedily dismantled by the French and the Germans, every one of the instruments being removed to the French or German Legations, and in the process the needless incidental damage was so great that the whole place was left a wreck. The Chinese 546 CHINA IN CONVULSION looters were not long in following those from abroad, and the iron railings which once enclosed the terrace were broken off in mere wantonness, and many of them stolen — as why should they not be, since the place was ruined ? It is a perfectly just reflection that this vandalism of Continental troops, under orders from their highest mili- tary authorities, is far less excusable than the attack of the savages under Tung Fu Hsiang on the Hanlin Yuan, for that was done under strong excitement, and this de- liberately and against the protests of a large part of the civilized world. The Examination Grounds display the same reckless destruction. The cells for the students (a little less than 8,500 in number) open in front, with a roof slanting back- ward, supported on two or three small poles. Other v/ood- work there is none. Yet in order to secure this trifle of material for kindling, hundreds of the stalls were pulled down, as well as the buildings at the entrance. It should be mentioned that the foreign troops in urgent need of firewood during a cold winter, demolished indis- criminately whatever buildings were most convenient — - yamens, old granaries, and temples. It was reported that by the time the winter was over, hardly any temples re- mained in the city of T'ung Chou. The headquarters of the American troops during the military occupation of Peking were in the Temple of Agriculture, a spacious series of enclosures in the south- ern part of the Chinese city. One of the main halls was employed as a hospital, and another as a supply depot for the commissariat, displaying long rows of hams, cases of tobacco, boxes of army beans, and barrels of beef. One of the side halls became a reading-room, and others were hospital wards. Another had been used for the storage of the gilded and lacquered specimens of THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 547 agricultural implements, the plough, the seed-drill, the harrow, the brush-harrow, the spade, the broom, the pitch- fork, and smaller utensils such as baskets and broad hats. All of these were unceremoniously hustled into the open air, and some of the smaller articles furnished convenient fuel for the 9th and 14th Regiments of U. S. Infantry. The officers for whose headquarters the main halls were used had no sooner taken possession, than they began to Iiave holes cut in the venerable walls and large plate-glass windows inserted, a proceeding which must have ap- peared to the shades of the divinities worshipped as an additional profanation and humiliation. The marble altar where the Emperor worships old legendary Shen Nung was a convenient place for the cavalry horses to be left in charge of the nearest coolie, and the choice spot of earth which the Emperor is sup- posed to cultivate with his ovv^n hand every successive spring, as an example to the tillers of the soil all over the Empire, was quite indistinguishable amid the dense growth of omnipresent weeds. Across the wide street opposite the Temple of Agricul- ture is the vast area, at least a mile on each face, in- closing the Temple of Heaven. For many years it was absolutely inaccessible to foreigners, and even during the minority of the present Emperor it was difficult to set one's foot inside. Now there is not a single Chinese anywhere to be seen, the keepers having been all driven away by the British when they took possession imme- diately on reaching Peking. One can drive his cart quite up to the lofty terrace leading to the triple cerulean domes denoting the threefold heaven. Each gate was sentried by a swarthy Sikh soldier — the personification of the domination of a greater empire than that of Rome in its best days — who merely glanced at you as you passed 548 CHINA IN CONVULSION or asked unintelligible questions in Hindustani, and made a respectful salaam when he was informed in several European languages, as well as in Chinese, that you were unable to catch the drift of his observations. The door to the great circular building devoted to the ancestral tablets of the Manchu dynasty stands wide open. It contained a huge tablet on the northern side, to Imperial Heaven, and eight cases — four on a side — to the eight Emperors who have thus far reigned during the past two hundred and fifty-six years. Every one of the eight cases, with heavy carv^ed doors, has been broken open, and every one of the eight tablets ta the deified ancestors has been taken away by British officers for transmission to the British Museum — an act of almost justifiable reprisal for Chinese treatment of the foreign cemetery. The Emperor's Hall of Fasting was used as the head- quarters of the British army in this part of the city, and every day was partly filled with many cart-loads of loot — silks, furs, silver and jade ornaments, embroidered clothing, and the like. This was daily forwarded to the British Legation, and sold at auction for the benefit of the army, to be soon replaced by as much more. The personal apartments of the Emperor in the rear served as the bedrooms of the officers, who looked mildly sur- prised when the circumstance was communicated to them at their dinner, and merely gave an inquiring glance, as much as to say, " Well, what of it, don't you know? " The seventh section of the Peace Conditions imposed by the Powers upon China provided for defences around the Legations and for the removal of all Chinese build- ings from their vicinity. The " Legation Area " was construed to embrace at least all the territory within a rectangle bounded on the south by the wall of the city, TEMPLE OF AGRICULTURE. PEKING AMERICAN HEADQUARTERS ENTRANCE, TEMI'LE OF AGRICULTURE, AMERICAN HEADQUARTERS THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 549 on the north by the wall of the Imperial city, on the east by the Ha Ta street, and on the west by the median line of the city, leading to the Ch'ien Men ; but that part lying north of Legation street, and west of the Board of War street will probably be excluded as superfluous. Within this broad tract, measuring more than a mile in length by perhaps half a mile in breadth, the most revolutionary changes at once began, such as the dem- olition of dwellings, yamens, and temples, and the gen- eral rehabilitation of the old Legations, with the most liberal additions. Opposite the Austrian Legation stood a green-tiled building which contained the Tablets of the prc-Imperial Ancestors of the founders of the Manchu Dynasty. This comes within the territory demanded for the Legations, and will be removed, the efforts of the Chinese and Manchus to save it having proved abortive. Its removal is in itself a fit outcome of the Manchu effort to end all relations with the rest of the civilized world by destroy- ing its representatives. The Japanese take in the Su Wang Fu, to which they have a strong claim, while the Italians, the French, and the Austrians, in like manner will cover a large part of the fighting area of the siege, absorbing the site of the Imperial Maritime Customs, the Imperial Mint, and the unfinished Chinese Bank. The abolition of the immemorial buildings belonging to several of the six Boards was vainly resisted by the Chinese, who will be helpless in the presence of the new fortresses commanding the Imperial palaces. It is a bitter humiliation, but one which the Court of Peking richly deserves. That Court was itself the great contriver and executor of the crime against all nations in Peking, and some of 550 CHINA IN CONVULSION Its agents have suffered a fit penalty. The provincial Treasurer of Chihh, Ting Yung, whom a Military Com- mission held at Pao Ting Fu in October adjudged guilty of the death of the fifteen British and Americans killed near that city, was there beheaded, together with others of lesser importance. During the winter two other officials of high rank were handed by the Allies over to the Chinese authorities to be beheaded in Peking, Ch'i Hsiu, and the son of Hsti T'ung, Hsii Ch'eng Yu. No Chinese had more to do with promoting the attack upon foreigners than Li Ping Heng, former Governor of Shantung, and subsequently the active agent of the Empress Dowager. He either died or committed suicide, and was subsequently bewailed at his home in Chang Te Fu, Honan. Imperial Decrees ordered and subsequently certified to the death of Prince Chuang (who was allowed to strangle himself), of Yii Hsien, the most infamous of them all, under whose personal superintendence forty-five for- eigners were hewn down at his yamen in T'ai Yuan Fu, of Chao Shu Ch'iao, Ying Nien, and others of less notoriety. Kang I, another important factor in the Boxer rising, was reported to have died in southern Shansi. Since there was no foreign witness of these deaths or executions the evidence of their reality has been regarded by many as inadequate, but there seems little reason to suppose that any of these officials will ever again figure in Chinese affairs. There is a long list of those who might well have been included, but if all were named who arc guilty it would be hard to make a beginning and still harder to kntiow where to stop. The experiences of the Chinese Court in the second enforced flight of the Empress Dowager within forty years, have a peculiar interest for one who pursues this strange story to its conclusion. The following notes of THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 551 some of its incidents are quoted from an interesting article by Miss Luella Miner, in the " Century Magazine," the collator being a progressive Chinese who, together with his relatives, suffered much bitterness from his friendship for foreigners, and regard for Western learn- ing. It is morally certain that the Empress Dowager had been deceived into a belief that foreign troops were either not near Peking, or would be unable to enter it, otherwise her delay in effecting her flight is utterly in- explicable. " On the 14th of August the sound of rifles and cannon was heard incessantly throughout the day. and it was rumoured that foreigners and native Christians were sneaking up from T'ung Chou and attacking one of the eastern gates. Toward evening it was noised abroad that a great company of Mohammedans, in most peculiar costume, had entered the city and encamped in the Temple of Heaven. Not till the next day was it generally known in the city that Peking had been captured by the ' for- eign devils ' and that the so-called Mohammedans were Indian troops under British officers. That Tuesday after- noon, soon after the Rajputs and Sikhs had entered the British Legation, General Ma was summoned to the Palace, and commanded to await the Imperial chariot at the northern gate of the Forbidden City. Toward evening the American troops captured the Ch'ien Gate, and sent shot and shell against the southern gate of the Imperial City. The Empress Dowager wept, and to- gether with the Emperor, the Empress, and the heir ap- parent, burned incense in the palace and prayed to Ileaven. Kang I entered the palace and v/ith great earnestness urged them to seek a refuge from the blast of the enemy. An edict was issued ordering all the princes and ministers to follow in the Imperial retinue. "Early on the morning of August 15th, the allies at- 552 CHINA IN CONVULSION tacked both the southern and eastern gates of the Im- perial City, whereupon the high Ministers hastened to the Ning Shou Palace to see the Empress Dowager ; but before they entered the palace a eunuch met them with the intelligence that the Empress Dowager and the Em- peror had already fled, having heard a false rumour of a revolution. " From the 14th of June, when the Empress Dowager returned to the city palaces, she had simply twisted her hair in a knot and worn the common dress of the people. The morning when she took her flight it was in this guise. The Empress Dowager, the Emperor, the Em- press, and the heir apparent, each rode in a separate cart, the Empress Dowager having Duke Lan's private cart, from which she had the red side-awnings removed. They left the city by the Te Sheng Gate on the north side. General Ma escorting them. The Chinese report that the favourite concubine, " Pearl," was strangled and thrown in a well. Of the Princes, nobles and high Ministers, about thirty were in their retinue ; Prince Tuan, Prince Chuang, Duke Lan, and Kang I being of the number. " The first night the royal fugitives lodged at Kuan Shih, a little village containing a Mohammedan inn, about thirty miles north of Peking. At this point they obtained mule litters, — palanquins borne by poles on the backs of mules, one in front and one behind. The Empress Dow- ager lay down in her litter all day, eating very little. The next night they lodged at Ch'a Tao, a place just outside the inner arm of the Great Wall, about fifty miles northwest of Pekmg. The District Magistrate did not know of the arrival of the chariot, and had made no preparation for their entertainment, so there was nothing for the Imperial table but a few grains of corn, while the retinue all had a hungry look. The District Magis- THE CAPITAL IN TRANSFORMATION 553 trate had only one sedan-chair, in which the Empress Dowager rode from this point, while the Emperor and the Empress still rode in the mule-litters. " On the 17th of August they arrived at Huai Lai. When they left the capital in haste and confusion, they were simply clad in summer raiment. After going through the Pass, the weather became suddenly cold, so they stayed in the Pure-True Temple of Huai Lai for two days to make their winter clothing. " On the 20th of August they arrived at Hsiian Hua (twenty miles from Kalgan). From this point three Ver- milion Pencil edicts were dispatched, one giving the causes which led to the flight of the Imperial family, the Emperor blaming himself for lack of intelligence in his use of men as officials, and blaming his Ministers for not using to the utmost the talents with which they were endued by Heaven. A second edict commanded the Min- isters to follow the court to T'ai Yuan Fu, while another remitted the taxes of the region through which they had passed. They stayed five days at Hsiian Hua. " From Hsiian Hua they went to Ta T'ung (near the northeastern boundary of Shansi), where they stayed two days. In going from there to T'ai Yuan Fu they passed through Tien Chen. This place had already been looted by rebels, so that shops and markets were all empty. Just as the District Magistrate was in great confusion and dismay, having nothing to lay his hand to, it was an- nounced that the holy chariot had suddenly arrived. Crazy with grief and fear he drank poison and died. So, when the Imperial party arrived they found only an empty city, and that night supped on a few drops of soup. They then sent the Imperial butler, a eunuch, back to Peking to purchase provisions and other necessities. " When the chariot, the retinue, and the Eight Banner 554 CHINA IN CONVULSION '(Manclui) soldiers arrived at T'ai Yuan Fu, over three hundred soldiers were sent back to Peking, under the com- mand of General Te, with only four taels apiece for pay, and later over three hundred men were sent back under Prince Su, each man receiving five taels. Of the high Ministers, only Kang I, Wang Wen Shao, and Chao Shu Chiao were left in the Imperial retinue, though there were several lesser Ministers. " Toward the end of September the earnest plea of the Emperor for a return to Peking seemed likely to win the day. The provincial Treasurer of Pao Ting Fu tele- graphed that the allies were about to make an attack on Pao Ting Fu, followed by an invasion of Shansi, so again the wish of the Empress Dowager prevailed, and the course of empire took its way westward. It is almost as far from T'ai Yuan Fu to Hsi An Fu as from Peking to T'ai Yuan Fu, so now it seems as if the Empress Dowager had burned her bridges behind her. In this ancient capi- tal of the Empire she means to stand at bay." It seems likely to be the strange fate of this woman, after directly authorizing the commission of perhaps the greatest crime against the intercourse of nations in the whole history of the human race, to be restored to her usurped throne, and to undisputed power, with no criti- cism upon her conduct in the past, and no guarantee as to her behaviour in the future. Whatever her fate or that of the Empire which she did so much to ruin, one of the most picturesque scenes of modern times will continue to be the Punishment of Peking. The city has been turned inside out, like the fingers of a glove, but whose hand shall ultimately fill it remains still to be settled. XXX THE RUIN OF t'uNG CHOU THE city of T'ung Chou, twelves miles east of Peking, is situated at the head of navigation of the Peiho, or North River. The plain upon which Peking is built, while thickly populated, does not afford sufficient supplies for the use of a large city, and every year enormous quantities of tribute rice from the central provinces pass through this river port on their way to the capital. The very name of the city denotes that it is the town by which traffic penetrates to Peking (" t'ung " signifying "to pass through"). From T'ung Chou to Peking a broad stone road on a high level was constructed cen- turies ago, but this has fallen into complete disrepair, so as to furnish at once a monument of the capacity and the incapacity of the rulers of the Empire. Parallel with this great stone road, of which countless foreign travellers have had heart-breaking (and back-breaking) experi- ences, a canal leads to the Tung Pien Gate of Peking, at the junction of the northern or Tartar City with the southern or Chinese City. Five blocks interrupt the pas- sage of boats, the cargoes requiring as many reshiftings, but to the patient Chinese this is an altogether minor matter. Contrary to the erroneous impression prevailing in Western lands, Chinese cities may be said to be built with 555 556 CHINA IN CONVULSION an invariable irregularity for geomantic purposes, but few city walls even in China have such a devious out- line as that of T'ung Chou. This is because it consists of two cities, an old and a new, the latter added many hundred years ago on the western side of the former one, apparently for the purpose of including within its spa- cious and devious circuit an Imperial Granary, long since fallen into ruin. Owing to the composite structure of the city, T'ung Chou enjoys the unusual (perhaps the unique) distinction of having two south gates, but the principal suburbs are outside of the east and the west gates, although that on the north, in the vicinity of the handsome and striking old pagoda, is also of considerable size. What the population of T'ung Chou may have been no one can say with certainty, but there is good reason to suppose that since foreigners have known it there have been perhaps between fifty and seventy thousand persons in and about the city. The arrival of the grain- boats from Tientsin, as well as those bringing the tribute direct from Shantung, was an annual event of capital im- portance to the whole population, for a large part of the people got their living directly from this nourishing stream of rice. This rice which had formerly been brought in junks by sea, and within recent years in steamers from the south, was trans-shipped at Tientsin to special boats which ultimately discharged their cargo on mats spread upon the bank of the canal leading to Peiho, a short distance below. After being measured and sacked, it was carried to the granaries, thence pass- ing through the intricate and tortuous channels estab- lished by Chinese precedent before reaching its final des- tination. Armies of huge brawny coolies were to be seen shouldering the clumsy sacks weighing perhaps consider- THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 557 ably over 200 pounds avoirdupois, and in this manner thousands of laborers found employment. Next to the excitement caused by the annual arrival of the tribute grain, was that occasioned by the various Literary Examinations in Peking', especially that for the second degree of " Selected Men " (Chii Jen). For a pe- riod of several weeks, when the river was alive with boats and boatmen, innkeepers, carters, wheelbarrowmen, mer- chants, and coolies, as well as many others in T'ung Chou, reaped a rich harvest. At such times the prices of boats and carts would mount to extravagant figures, for the traveller from a distance was completely at the mercy of the local sharks, each one of whom took care to get a liberal bite. Aside from these special causes of prosperity the steady stream of official and unofficial travellers, merchants, and traders, and the handling of the merchandise passing through for Peking, particularly the large and important item of foreign freight, upon which it was easy to collect the most exorbitant charges, made the carrying of goods and passengers a lucrative specialty of this gateway of the Capital. For about a third of a century, or since 1866, T'ung Chou has been a station of the American Board Mission, beginning with small premises in the center of the city, and later extending to others further west. Within the past ten years they have embraced also an extensive area some distance beyond the south-west comer of the city. Within the city walls were located a dispensar}- and hos- pitals, for both men and women, a theological seminary, schools for boys and girls, as well as four dwelling- houses and numerous other buildings. Outside the city was the North Qiina College of the American Board, together with four dwelling-houses occupied by the faculty of that institution ; there were also adjacent 558 CHINA IN CONVULSION premises, where were the beginnmgs of an industrial plant. It is important to observe that, from the first, the rela- tions of the people of T'ung Chou with the foreigners living them had been one of ideal friendliness. There had not only never been a riot, but no disturbance of any sort had broken the uniform harmony. The in- fluence of the long years of work in the hospital and dispensary had been wide-spread. The College was recognized by the people and by the local scholars as an honour to the city. Intercourse with the officials had al- ways been friendly, and sometimes cordial. That the foreigners were well known and trusted, the following instance will show. When the Allied Forces attacked Peking, in October, i860, the city of T'ung Chou took occasion to capitulate on its own account, offering to furnish the foreign troops whatever was required in the line of supplies, on the condition that the city itself should not be harmed, — an arrangement which was carried into effect. During the progress of the war between China and Japan, when it was feared that Peking must fall a prey to the invader, Dr. Sheffield, the President of the College, was approached, with a view to ascertaining whether in the event of the arrival of the Japanese he would under- take to go out and meet them, and make such terms as would secure the integrity of the city. When it was learned that he was willing to assume the undertaking, upon a set day a guard of five hundred soldiers was sent to their residences to escort Dr. Sheffield and Dr. Good- rich to the military headquarters. There they were re- ceived with the salute of cannon, reserved for officers of the rank of Governors-General, and were introduced to an audience with several high officials, all of whom THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 559 treated the foreigners with the highest respect, and were greatly reheved at the prospect of intervention at a crisis of pecuhar difficuhy. While the later movements of the Japanese did not call for the execution of this service, the fact that it was asked and promised, and especially the gaudy concomitants of the explosion of so much powder and the marching of so large a force of soldiers in honour of two foreigners, tended to surround them with a blaze of glory, the effects of which were not evanescent. For more than ten years previous to the building of the railway between Tientsin and Peking, such a work had been not only projected, but approved by Imperial Edict. Upon one occasion, when it seemed about to materialize. Dr. Sheffield was visited by one of the gen- try of the city, whose first movement was to perform the kotow. Subsequently he arose to explain that he was praying to be saved from the terrors of an invasion of his ancestral grave-yard by the iron road of the fire-wheel- carts, which would disturb the slumbers of his fore- fathers, and bring swift and irreparable ruin upon the whole family. It was no doubt difBcult for him to com- prehend, and still more to believe. Dr. Sheffield's statement that this entire business from first to last was in the hands of the Government, and that private Americans living in T'ung Chou had absolutely no connection with it. After many false starts and countless set-batiks, the building of the line from Tientsin actually began to take shape after the close of the war with Japan. At a pre- vious period, when it was regarded as certain to material- ize, Chinese speculators took pains to lay hold of large tracts of land in the vicinity of the city, where the rail- way station was likely to be. The people of T'ung Chou were in an agony of apprehension lest the geomantic for- 56o CHINA IN CONVULSION tunes of their city be overwhelmed with disaster, and the trade ruined by the new and dreaded innovations now not merely threatened, but certain to come upon them. They had left no means untried, no stone unturned to avert this calamity, but in vain. At their very extremity one more device was thought of, which was their last hope. The difficulty with the innumerable protests which had been made was, that some yet more influential counter-memorial always took the wind out of T'ung Chou sails, and left them in a worse position than before. It was by bribing the Cen- sors in Peking that an influential memorial against the proposed line was secured, pointing out its dangers for T'ung Chou, and the undesirability of antagonizing the people of that city. There was a popular impression that one of the Princes was also induced to interest himself in the matter, and that it was owing to his influence that the course of the railway was turned toward the west, around the great Hunting Park, known as the " Nan Hai Tzu," where it passed through a region destitute of any towns of importance. While it would receive no local traffic, there would at least be no opposition. At all events, although the evil could not be altogether pre- vented, it was at least driven to so great a distance that it would no more disturb the peace of the denizens of the City of Penetration. There was a brief period during which these hopes seemed to have been completely accomplished. Every- thing went on as it had always done, and fear was banished. But in the spring of 1897 it began to be no- ticed that the usual number of travellers did not visit the city, en route to Peking, and that the boat traffic fell off in an unexampled manner. This happened to be the year for the triennial examinations in Peking, when, as THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 561 mentioned, T'ung Chou expects a plenteous harvest. But only a fraction of the students came by the river as they had hitherto invariably done, for the fire-wheel cart had just begun its regular trips, and the curiosity of the travel- ling public to see it and to experience the sensation of '¦ rapid transit," brought such a multitude of passengers that the means of transportation were much more than exhausted. The vans were all filled, and so were the freight cars ; even the platform cars used for hauling gravel had to be pressed into service. The railway was a triumphant success from the start, but poor T'ung Chou wept in secret (and in public) places over the loss of its passenger trafific. Business was no longer done as before. The inns were largely unoccupied, the stores sold but little, building and re- pairing stopped at once ; the carters and donkey-boys, con- stituting a by no means insignificant portion of the active life of the city, had nothing to do. Venders of food on the street found a small and a diminishing market. The barbers w^ould tell their customers, as they gossiped over the dressing of their queues, that from the largest firm in the place down to the peripatetic seller of ankle-ties not a soul but was suffering from the locomotor ataxia which had attacked every form of business. In short the place was beginning to die, and the people were likely to die with it. This was bad, but worse was in prospect. The numer- ous important families who farmed the tribute grain business of T'ung Chou had good reason to fear that their innumerable perquisites, derived from the trans- portation, the storing, and the handling of the rice, would soon be cut ofif. It had been discovered that galvanized iron box-cars had proved a complete protection to the great quantities of tea formerly shipped from Tientsin 562 CHINA IN CONVULSION z'ia T'ung Chou for Russia, much of which used to be stolen 01 route by broaching the packages on the river. A memorial to the Emperor already quoted had long since suggested the sending of the Imperial supplies by the same route, on the ground that " it would put a stop to stealing by the crews of the boats." It would also put a period to the subsistence of a large part of the T'ung Chou people, as they clearly foresaw. But as their earnest prayer had been granted and as the peril had not invaded their grave-yards, and as the new road was built for the Emperor himself, it did not appear that there was anything to be done about the matter, unless it might be to repent in dust and ashes, which the whole city appeared to do. From the merchant in his large and unfrequented shop to the manure-gatherer and the beggar, all alike would tell you of the decay of business and the fact that it was no longer possible to make a living. A score or more of large firms were said to have removed bodily from the eastern suburbs of the city to Peking, to regain their trade which had left them, and in some of the streets grass was literally growing where it had never been before noticed. The northern part of China is the land of dust-storms. On some sunshiny day it is noticed that the rays of the sun appear to be less powerful than usual. Presently they are obscured. No cloud is to be seen, but a dull haze of a dark brown hue becomes more and more per- vasive, until the dust settles down quietly from above, or, if the wind has arisen, arrives in swirls speedily envelop- ing everything, so that on the worst occasions it may be necessary to light the lamps in the middle of the day. No one knows whence the dust comes, why it comes at some times and not at others, or why it comes at all. It is simply an indisputable and an iiiiluential fact. THE RUIN OF T'UNG CHOU 563 Not unlike the dust-storm of the quiet t>'pe, was the arrival of the Boxer movement at T'ung Chou. " Like a spirit it came in the van of the storm." The writer reached that city on the 17th of May by boat from Shantung, with a guard of three soldiers, who were regarded with surprise by all foreigners and most Chinese, as an unwonted and a superfluous luxury of travel. The river route was quiet, and so was that by land. T'ung Chou was quiet also, although there were rumours that trouble was brewing in the east suburb. It was afterward known that the Boxer virus had been brought by men who came in boats from Tientsin, or perhaps Tu Liu, a noted Boxer head-quarters on the Grand Canal eighteen miles south by water, and after- wards nearly destroyed by foreign troops. The training was recommended as useful for protection of one's per- son, one's home and family, and one's village. It had no elements of hostility to foreigners, and was so simple that even children could learn it, as w'as soon demonstrated. Occasionally some of the ladies going about as usual in their sedan-chairs or otherwise noticed demonstrations which attracted their attention. Once a man capered in front of the chair and made motions as if to cut off his head, and the by-standers laughed. In about ten days the rumours grew more alarming, but were vague, inde- finable, and could not be verified. The movement had no sooner begun to mal' ones whom the late owners had diligently endeavoured to kill : nor did the short-sighted Chinese who surreptitiously at- tacked their employers foresee that it would not be long before it would not be safe for them to go about the streets of their own city, and that after nine o'clock at night no Chinese would l)e allowed abroad on the foreign A.MERICAX BOARD MISSION, TIENTSIN' AMERICAN BOARD MISSION, TIENTSIN, AFTER THE SIEGE TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 577 concessions, except jinrikisha men actually drawing a foreign passenger. There is no doubt that the Chinese armies under com- mand of General Nieh and others fought with a des- peration for which nothing in the war with Japan afforded any parallel. The official report of Yii Lu published in the " Peking Gazette " of June 25th and subsequent dates, is an interesting document. He mentions that the troops and the Boxers are in cooperation, and that the latter were willing to offer their services freely and had fully demonstrated their patriotism. Their numbers actually present at Tientsin, can not, he says, be less than 30.000, and " they regard the burning of churches and the killing of foreigners as their profession." So did His Excellency, for in the papers captured at his yamen there is an entry of one hundred taels as having been paid as a reward for the heads of two foreigners ! The net result of all this Boxerism and of the sacrifice of so many Chinese soldiers in numerous engagements was that the Chinese troops were utterly routed (even where they might have made a formidable stand outside and beyond the walls), and the city left a prey to its foes. Military government at once began, and so likewise did destruction and pillage. When the whole field had been surveyed the destruction of life and of property w^as found to have been enormous. Of the former it is im- possible to speak with definiteness.but of the latter there were everywhere visible proofs. The south gate which the Japanese blew open, and at which they entered, had its tower totally destroyed, and a temple within the south- eastern quarter, used as an arsenal, was the scene of a great explosion. Between the south gate and the cen- tral drum-tower many of the houses and shops were burned, and between this tower and the north gate noth- 578 CHINA IN CONVULSION ing was left standing on either side of the street. From the drum-tower to the west gate the ruin was not quite so universal, while east of the drum-tower except in the vicinity of a mission church there was not much devasta- tion. Outside the north gate, the narrow street extending to the iron bridge leading to the yamen of the Governor General for display of its wares and for the extent of its trade, was perhaps one of the finest in all China. Be- tween the Boxers, the Chinese soldiers, and the local ruffians whose habit was first to loot and then to burn, this long row of business houses was almost entirely ob- literated, involving losses amounting doubtless to tens of millions of taels. For many days the principal occupa- tion of many soldiers, and civilians also, was the garner- ing of the rich crop of looted silver from the innumerable places where it was to be found, and whence it was car- ried ofiF by the wheel-barrow load and the cart load. It was a standard story that when the attention of a soldier was called to the fact that he had dropped one or two " shoes " (each worth about $70 Mexican), he would re- ply ; " Never mind, you pick them up — I have all I want ! " The treasure found in the various yamens must have been enough to furnish a mint. The fate of these yamens was interesting as a part of the general retribution. That of the Governor General which for twenty-two years had been occupied by Li Hung Chang (a large part of it accidentally destroyed by fire during the winter), became the headquarters of a " Tientsin Provisional Government," established by the military' authorities, when it was found that there were insuperable objections to conceding the request of the Russians thatTientsin should be turned over to that Power alone. This Provisional Government was constituted by TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 579 the appointment of a British, a Russian, a Japanese, and later a German, Colonel to act as Commissioners, the number being subsequently increased to six, assisted by the necessary staff for the execution of the functions of policing and controlling so large a city and so important a centre. As soon as Tientsin was taken every Chinese official, civil as well as military, promptly disappeared, and most of them suffered extreme " bitterness " on the flight southward, being systematically pillaged by the Chinese at all points of their long journey, so that they were in many cases reduced to absolute penury. The yamen of the Customs Taotai (one of the most important in the city) was occupied by the Japanese ; that of the Prefect by the French ; while those of the District Magistrate, of the Salt Commissioner, and of the Brigadier General, were reduced to complete ruin. Thus an incidental outcome of the plan of the officials to combine the Boxers and the Chinese troops to drive the foreigners into the sea, was that within sixty days of the beginning of serious operations officials, Boxers, and Chinese soldiers had ab- solutely disappeared from the scene, leaving the hated foreigner in undisputed charge of everything everywhere. The fort near the Governor General's yamen from which the settlement had been viciously attacked, was soon taken by the Japanese, who posted a small guard over it, other troops occupying the numerous forts in the immediate vicinity. Numbers of new and unused Krupp gtms were captured in the neighbourhood of the city, showing the utter demoralization which seized the Chinese soldiers when once it had set in. The city had no sooner been occupied than the British and other officers pressed on to the river outside the north gate to seize the junks, cargo-boats, and house-boats for 58o CHINA IN CONVULSION military transports, in consequence of which thereafter not a boat could stir nor a boatman peep except with military consent. Every craft of every sort either had the label of some " outside country " painted upon it — British 87, U. S. Transport 63, etc., — or flew a flag with the mystic symbol " T. P. G.," showing that it was reg- istered and licensed by the Tientsin Provisional Govern- ment, as were the carts, barrows, rikshas, " and also much cattle." The rice tribute came to an abrupt period, and all the extensive supplies on hand were soon looked after by some of the military, who were at once omnipresent and omnipotent. The long mountain ranges of salt stocked up on the left bank of the Peiho, had over them a Russian flag at one end, and a French flag at the other, and for the next year or so no salt-boats left for the interior, where the people got on as they could. At the New Year season, when the Chinese most de- light in the promiscuous and unrestrained explosion of innumerable bunches of fire-crackers, proclamations were issued in Tientsin (as well as in the other cities under foreign military rule) positively forbidding anything of the kind on pain of arrest and punishment. Few of the hitherto universally posted ornamental and flowery in- scriptions over doorways, and on the door-posts, were to be seen, and such was the terror inspired by the foreign soldiers that even formal bows on the streets (said to be forbidden by the Japanese police) had to be wholly pretermitted. It was not considered altogether safe to perform these indispensable ceremonies even in the pri- vacy of one's own court-yard, where even women were said to be sometimes arrested for indulging in the in- evitable gambling appropriate to the period of national relaxation. Under these strange and bitter conditions TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 581 many Chinese were heard plaintively to exclaim that it would have been better not to have any New Year at all ! A year ago the word " yang" (foreign) was every- where so odious that even the innocent Mohammedans who sold "yang joii " (sheep-meat, a word with the same sound but different meaning), were attacked on that ac- count. Everything foreign was taboo, or if indispensable was dubbed with a new name. Foreign drilling must be called " fine cloth " or " wide cloth," foreign rifles " knobbed-guns," foreign matches " quick-fire," and the like. But now Chinese were everywhere to be met, dressed in foreign hats, coats, trousers, and boots (and in winter even in hitherto unprecedented mittens and gloves), the cast-off property of soldiers and civilians. All classes learned the miHtary salute with more or less inaccuracy, the smallest children ostentatiously perform- ing it before every passer by, and old beggar women care- fully shaded one eye under the impression that they were thus punctiliously observing the foreign proprieties while soliciting a " foreign cash." The fate of the materials which were especially de- pended upon for the destruction of the hated foreigner is an apt illustration of the miscarriage of plans which seem to their promoters the best laid in the world. The Arsenal in the southeastern corner of the city was found stocked with weapons of the most miscellaneous nature, all of which were taken over by the Provisional Government and issued to whatever foreigner presented a request for them as a defence to his life and property. Lead from this Arsenal and elsewhere was collected by the Provi- sional Government, melted into 200 pound bars, and shipped to Shanghai in large quantities, the proceeds going to swell the handsome revenues which were pres- ently pouring into the coffers of that energetic corpora- 582 CHINA IN CONVULSION tion. which with conspicuous success undertook many- branches of administration hitherto distributed among a score or more of yam.cns, or left altogether undone. The right to excavate and remove the remains of the Arsenal at Hsiku partly destroyed by Admiral Seymour's party was sold at auction, the purchaser unearthing vast lava-flows of lead and other metal melted in the general combustion, to the enrichment of the foreigner and the impoverishment of the Chinese Government. For two months after the siege the people of Tientsin, many of whom had fled to villages at a distance, were afraid to return, but by degrees the city began to look less deserted, and the Taku road which passes through the foreign settlement began to assume something of its wonted activity. Numerically considered, the destruction of dwellings in the city itself was a small matter when compared with that in the environs. The densely crowded main street running through the French concession, upon which were most of the Chinese shops dealing in foreign goods, was totally destroyed, not a single building left standing. Some of them were burned by the foreigners during the siege to prevent them from being used as forts to attack the foreign houses, and then the shops were looted by whomever could get there first. Large tracts of the French concession were burned in the same way, for since so much was being destroyed it would be con- venient to have the whole area laid out anew, and no questions asked. On the east of the river around the railway station, where the fighting was most furious, not a Chinese dwell- ing was left, nor for a long distance in any direction. The villages along the river between Tientsin and Taku have likewise been destroyed, and the same was true on every side of the city, but in varying degrees. This ex- TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 583 tensive diminution in the number of houses, resulted in great inconvenience and discomfort, and, when the cold weather came on, in unspeakable misery. Extravagant rents were demanded for tlie meanest huts ; even more serious than the lack of an abode was the difficulty of bupng food and the scarcity of fuel, for the rains had been deficient, and the crops, such as they were, had been neglected. Prices were at a preposterous figure, while wages, ow- ing to the irrational standard set by the military, seemed to promise sudden riches, forty cents being paid for the labor of a short day, instead of twenty as heretofore. Cash ceased to be the topic of conversation, as it had been since the creation of all things, and all the talk was of "mao" (dimes), and "yuan" (dollars). But this fictitious prosperity had its outcome in the fact that in- stead of one's buying for cash — a tenth of a cent — as a unit, almost nothing was to be had for less than ten cents, so that in terms of food and clothes no one was much better off than before. To these evils due to a violation of the laws of political economy, were added others arising primarily from a contempt for the laws of nations. China had defied the world, and the world was upon her. With such a poly- glot force of troops it was next to impossible to keep them in order, and as a matter of fact it was not done. Some of the Russian, the French, the Indian, and the German troops distinguished themselves as high-way robbers, plundering the Chinese of their money, their goods, and their clothing, and this in broad daylight and in public places. Military raids into the regions about Tientsin were made in all directions, and although it is impossible to get at the facts it is certain that the three shortest of 584 CHINA IN CONVULSION the Ten Commandments were constantly violated on an extensive scale, and with no redress for " the heathen Chinese." Ever}' individual coolie must have a label sewed to his coat, or he might be commandeered by an urgent military officer for his particular job, perhaps being paid good wages, and perhaps at the end being dismissed with a kick. Lest their badges be stolen from them for the protection of others, some of the Chinese had brass plates clamped to their arms, and many poor fellows after working hard all day on their way to their hovels had the results of their toil snatched from them by a French trooper from Algiers, or a German from Kiao- chou. The native scoundrels who had lately been drawing ra- tions from the Governor General as " patriotic Boxers," had thrown away their red girdles, and while the looting season lasted gave themselves to that industry with a single eye and with both hands earnestly. If however, one continued poor, he mingled with the crowd and of- fered his services as a policeman of the Provisional Gov- ernment, where he might levy black-mail indiscriminately, since there was no one to testify to his past record. Now and then, as a result of too great temerity one such lost his head, but this was regarded as a mere incident in the ordinary line of risks, and had no deterring effect upon others. The professional rowdies and blacklegs of Tientsin, as the fruit of their prudent exertions at the moment of destiny, are now rich a.nd prosperous, while those who were formerly well-to-do are either in exile or in poverty. As one outcome of this inversion of the social order, the poor being suddenly rich and the rich becoming poor, the numerous and important charities of Tientsin were largely dried up at the fountain-head. The soup-kitchens which TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 585 usually flourish were sought in vain, and although there are still a few benevolent gentry who would gladly do something for those in distress, their inadequate resources are, in classical language, but " a cup of water to put out a fire in a cart-load of fuel." Whatever the excellences of the Tientsin Provisional Government, which within a certain radius were many, it entirely failed in the first principle of good administra- tion, that the work should be done through the Chinese themselves. Li Hung Chang indeed appointed a District Magistrate, a Prefect, and a territorial Taotai, not one of whom was allowed by the six military " kings " who held the actual authority to open an office in the city, even if he could set foot in it with safety. The last named official, who is a man of weight and dignity in the Chinese scale of rank, ought to ride in a chair, and appear in his robes of office, but he was ordered out of Tientsin as if his arrival were an impertinence, and was not even allowed to have a place of business anywhere within the county limits. When he called upon the " kings " he dared not appear in his proper costume, but only in undress clothing, being rightly assured that they would never know the difference. The whole Chinese system of government is one of graded and interrelated responsibility. By their wanton acts of violence the Chinese at Tientsin put an end to their own rule, and that which took its place was at best limited, inadequate, and irresponsible. The inces- sant raids of the military drove away the officials in wide tracts of country, over which there was no government of any kind. Bands of pirates who usually rob water- craft and hide up the inaccessible creeks and bays, now ranged the country as mounted thieves. Their only and inappeasable cry was for " silver." If that were not 586 CHINA IN CONVULSION forthcoming, the poor wretch who was attacked might be tied by the queue to a beam in his own house and slowly roasted over a fire of fuel. This is termed " sitting on the lotus flower " Or he might be forced into a frame- work of telegraph-wire heated red-hot, which is called " riding on the fire-wheel cart," until he should pay the sum demanded. When complaint was made to the Pro- visional Government, the very natural reply was received that they had at present (although later it was other- wise) no jurisdiction beyond the outer rampart of Tien- tsin — all the rest was a No-man's land dedicated to mis- rule and to primeval chaos ! The great eastern arsenal, from which the attacks upon the settlement were so fierce and persistent, was captured by the Russians on the 27th of June, and although largely destroyed as a work-shop for weapons, became an excel- lent Russian hospital. The western arsenal, in the " Treaty Temple," was a complete wreck, and all its ma- chinery was sold to private speculators by the Provisional Government, and was stacked up in a melancholy row next to the foreign cemetery on the British Concession. The huge bell presented by the Krupp Company to the Chinese Government long years ago, was in turn pre- sented by the Provisional Government to the Tientsin British Municipal Council, where it hangs in the Pub- lic Gardens, and is expected to give the settlement its much-needed standard of time. Could the military humiliation of Tientsin go deeper than this? The land lying between Tientsin city and the settle- ments had gradually increased in value to the extent of many hundred per cent, and as much of it was dotted with graves it was not to be had at any price. Not many months after the capture of the city the French Consul General issued a circular notifying the public that that TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 587 office " did not recognize " the validity of any Chinese deeds drawn before the 17th of June (the date of the capture of the Taku forts), and that within specified and expansive Hmits all land had now by this fiat become the property of the French Municipal Council, any previous deeds requiring to be registered at the Consulate. In pursuance of this act of annexation the ruins of Chinese houses were leveled, broad boulevards laid out in de- sirable directions, and all plaints of Chinese owners for compensation answered with a shrug of the shoulders. As much of this land had swarmed with dwellings, the hardship to innocent owners was great and remediless, and presently these unfortunate individuals found them- selves required to pay a tax of several dollars a month for the right to continue in temporary occupation of their own houses ! These additions to the French territory extended from the settlement, north to the river, and thence west to the rampart enclosing the city. Upon a large part of this it is announced that in future no Chinese will be allowed to live. Immediately adjoining this is the Japanese quarter, em- bracing the whole battlefield of July 13th, and extending to the south wall of the city, and east and west from the Peiho to the mud rampart. The densely crowded houses had almost all been destroyed, and over the ruins of every door was posted a sign in Japanese and Chinese : " This house reserved for Japanese troops." Along the whole frontage of their extensive addition they demolished all buildings, dwellings, shops, yamens and temples with the rest, and opened a wide street along the water front, which the Provisional Government con- tinued the whole distance to the Grand Canal, and to the Iron Bridge opposite the yamen of the Governor General. Innumerable Ch'nese shops and dens thus disappeared. 588 CHINA. IN CONVULSION The boulevard which replaces the narrow and tortuous alleys is macadamized and wholesome — but it is by no means certain that the late Chinese occupants are entirely happy. In continuation of this new avenue it was decided by the Provisional Government to make a roadway en- tirely around the city, but this could only be accomplished by the removal of the city wall. A contract for this work was given out to a Chinese, who, during the winter months hired armies of the poor, thus having the melan- choly satisfaction of assisting in destroying the defences of the city which had so recently felt the need of them. Multitudes of " squatters " along the city wall were thereby dislodged and had no place to go, and such was the number of homeless wretches in the bitter months of the winter, that every temple was choked with them, and they filled even the jail of the yamen of the District i\Iagis- trate. an official for whom there was now no yamen and no use. The whole city wall w^as levelled, the city moat filled up, and adjacent dwellings demolished, all to make a long esplanade, sixty or more feet wide, encircling Tien- tsin, looking to the probable introduction of an electric road to accommodate the steadily growing and hitherto unmanageable traffic. A proceeding so revolutionary could not take place without exciting the most bitter opposition from the gen- try and the people, who sent repeated and urgent memo- rials to Li Hung Chang against it, pleading piteously in the figurative language of the Orient that a Chinese city without walls is like a woman without her nether gar- ments ! Li quashed their petitions with the curt remark that the wall was old and of no protective value, and the work went on apace to its completion. In the meantime the official surveyor of the Provisional Government was TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 589 set at work to map out the whole region, and to mark out a street of uniform width from the north to the south gate, remorselessly cutting off several feet from each shop- front for the advantage of that hitherto disregarded en- tity, the Public. The extensive ponds and holes in dif- ferent corners of the city are all to^ be filled up, and the land offered for sale, and as every situation is in- comparably more accessible than before, the ultimate convenience will be great, while the actual owners may perhaps be heavy losers. The mountains of bricks from the facing of the city wall were exposed for sale, and now form the enclosing walls and the pavements of foreign premises on the settlements, whose owners a few months since were shot at and bombarded by soldiers posted on that same city wall and perhaps treading on these very bricks. Through- out all the streets and alleys of Tientsin, and the other cities similarly governed, the houses are all numbered with Arabic figures, and many of the streets have been renamed, especially by the Japanese, who appear to re- gard their settlement as merely an addition to the Islands of Nippon. Below the mud rampart so often mentioned, the Ger- mans, by the same simple formula now exclusively em- ployed, have annexed a large tract which has become an integral part of the German Empire. Across the Peiho on the east, the same facile plan has been followed by Belgium, by Russia (whose miles of addition included the railway station, and brought two Empires to the very verge of war), and by Italy and Austria. Each of these nations has now broad areas dignified by the satirical designations of " Concessions," but which might rather be styled " Aggressions." All the " Powers " (except China) are now accommo- 590 CHINA IN CONVULSION dated with a commodious water-front, nearly the whole distance from the junction of the Grand Canal and the Peiho being appropriated in this way, with the prospect of larger demands for the " hinterlands " of each section in the future. The foreign settlements of Tientsin have been turned into a camp, and its principal buildings occupied for mili- tary purposes. The Gordon Municipal Hall was a British, and the Union Church an Italian hospital. The Japanese took the building of the Y. M. C. A. ; the Temperance Hall was filled with Sikhs, the Tientsin University with Germans, the Chinese Alilitary and Medical School with French. All nations, all races, were on perpetual exhibi- tion. One might see everywhere the sturdy little Japa- nese ; the coarse-featured, stocky Russian ; the somewhat undersized Frenchman (perhaps a company of Zouaves from Algiers in flaming scarlet trousers of astonishing size and shape) ; the burly young German; the stout Brit- isher of the Royal Welsh Fusiliers ; the lithe American ; together with a motley flow of tall and swart Sikhs, Pa- thans, Beluchis, and Rajputs, as well as the Chinese or- ganized into the British First Regiment of Wei Hai Wei ; here and there an Austrian, Italians decorated with huge tufts of feathers on their hats, and occasionally the shrewd white-turbaned Parsee. To deal with the problem of the commissariat for all this mixed multitude was a mighty task. In the dead of night one might detect the deep tones of the l>ells hung to the neck of long strings of camels loaded with stores for Peking, a mode of transportation not seen in Tientsin for decades, and only employed while the railway was undergoing its slow repairs. The streets were choked with interminable processions of British pack animals, lines of the capacious Studebaker American FIRST BRITISH-CHINESE REGIMEXT, WEI llAI WEI RUSSIAN TROOPS EN ROUTE TO PEKING TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 591 army wagon, the clumsy forage carts of the Russians, German vehicles bought from the Dutch and made in Java, and the trig little trucks of the Japanese. The big humped Indian buffalo drew a light framework support- ing a water-barrel for the I\Iohammedan troops, and long lines of all descriptions of wheeled drays or carts struggled at the hydrants, or at the hose-pipes furnishing distilled water. The enterprising Cantonese, who owned most of the Chinese stores dealing in foreign goods, being regarded by the Tientsinese as practically foreigners, were either driven away or killed, and their possessions impartially looted. The " Tientsin Road " on the French settlement, formerly filled with these shops from end to end, was totally destroyed, and their places taken by French bar- racks. The Temple of the " Purple Bamboo Grove " (Tzu Chu Lin) which gave its name to the settlement, was wholly demolished and burned, its site being heaped with the timbers of wrecked buildings. The once stylish Victoria Road was lined with patient Chinese squatting in attendance upon stands (if that can be called a " stand '' which is merely a cloth spread upon the ground), dis- playing a stock of pears, eggs, turnips, and the odds and ends saved or plundered from the wreck of the numerous stores dealing in foreign goods — candles, lamps, chimneys, towels, socks, mirrors, pictures, and all the miscellaneous wares found in Chinese shops, each " stand " a small de- partment store in itself. New places of business burst forth in unexpected spots. A gate-house suddenly developed a glass-window on the side to the street with the legend : " Exchange to Money," for the coin was most confusing. Counterfeit dollars and fractional currency abounded, so that one was afraid to talve any change at all. The city which hated foreigners 592 CHINA IN CONVULSION and their speech began to be full of signs in English, Japanese, French, and German, perhaps informing the passer-by that " Japan Wishky are sold here," or that the proprietor was prepared, for a consideration, to " Makee tattoo in the skin." It is a melancholy fact that it was the worst phase of Occidental civilization which was displayed most widely and conspicuously to the Chinese, and that they were given the very best reason to suppose that the principal object of every " ocean man " was to find a place in which to drink. The entire lower end of the Taku Road was filled with saloons and disreputable resorts of every variety, where roistering crowds of foreign soldiers from all the great countries of the world nightly met, and drank, and fought. Privates and officers, the latter too in considerable num- bers, were shot and killed during the winter in quarrels between different contingents of the " China Expedition- ary Force," and more than once the French and the Americans, the British and the French, or the Russians and the British, seemed to be on the point of open hostili- ties, with no greater cause than some private bar room dispute or a national feud growing out of hotly recipro- cated taunts and flings. All this, however, belongs to an exceptional and a tran- sitional state. Tientsin is undergoing a great transforma- tion. It is sure to be in the future far more than hitherto a vast commercial distributing depot, its river deepened and straightened, the navigation improved, and the in- tractable Taku bar brought under effective control. It will be a great manufacturing, railway, and educational centre, and before the twentieth century is well under way will enjoy a prosperity unthought of in the past, TIENTSIN AFTER THE SIEGE 593 which will make the year of the Boxer rising seem in retrospect like a troubled dream. And all this it will owe to the far-sightedness, energy, persistence, and skill of the foreigners for whom in the closing year of the nineteenth centur>' the Chinese Gov- ernment and the Chinese people had no other wish than to kill them all. XXXII FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR TO describe in detail the experiences of the great number of foreigners who were scattered all over the interior of an Empire far larger than the whole of Europe, would of itself require a volume. All that can here be attempted is such a rapid surv'ey as to make clear that the Boxer movement was in no sense a " rebellion," which it soon became the interest of the Government itself and especially of its Ministers abroad to represent it to be, but a deliberately planned and comprehensive attempt to exterminate foreigners wher- ever found. That there were edicts issued from the Central Gov- ernment in Peking to different and distant parts of the Empire ordering the immediate massacre of all foreign- ers, is certain. The evidence is of a varied and convincing nature. Intelligence of such a Decree was brought to missionaries and others by friends in the yamens, by friendly telegraph operators, and by officials — some of them of high rank — in at least three provinces and in numerous places hundreds of miles apart, almost simultaneously. Twice at least the original dispatch was seen by foreigners, and its phraseology is indelibly en- graved on the memories of those who were stunned by the appalling and unexampled words : " Feng Yang-jcn pi sha, yang-jcn t'ui hui chi sha," " Whenever you meet 594 FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 595 foreigners you must kill them, and if they attempt to escape they must still immediately be killed." It has been generally believed that the two Ministers of the Tsung Li Yamen who were executed during the progress of the siege in Peking, Hsu Ching Ch'eng, and Yiian Ch'ang, admitted that they had altered the char- acter for " kill," into another meaning " protect " (pao), and this is said to have been affirmed by the son of one of them, and assigned as a reason for their decapitation. This point remains in some obscurity, for several different reasons. As a matter of fact the dispatch was not altered within the numerous regions where it most seri- ously affected foreigners, and in the case of Imperial Edicts it is thought incredible that any one should dare to take such a step at once fatal and futile. It was of course convenient both for the Governors General and Governors who refused to obey this Decree and later for the Chinese Government itself to assume that it was " spurious," a legal fiction which has been consistently maintained, and will doubtless remain as the standard explanation among the Chinese, and among many for- eigners. The theory in that case is that Prince Tuan was " a usurper," and that his clique gained possession of the seals of State, and for a time put the real " Government " under duress. It is a Chinese maxim that " an officer depends upon his seal," — losing that he loses his office too, and having the seal he ex oiHcio is the person to whom the seal be- longs. Prince Tuan was put in power by the deliberate act of the Empress Dowager herself for a definite pur- pose, and there seems to be no evidence that his acts were either disavowed by her, or in any way objection- able to her until their consequences became so. After that, the adoption of the theory of " spurious Decrees " 596 CHINA IN CONVULSION was inevitable, and has been definitely fixed by an Edict, as from the Emperor, ordering the collection of all the Decrees issued after the siege of the Legations began, that their genuineness might be officially denied, so as to put an end to their citation as acts of " the Government of China." But it should be distinctly recognized that such disavowal has no real bearing upon historic facts, and can in no way undo the irreparable past. In this connection peculiar interest attaches to the ac- companying note from Sir Robert Hart, Inspector-Gen- eral of the Chinese Imperial Maritime Customs: " Peking i8//i June, 1901. " Dear Dr. Smith : " It would be interesting to get a really reliable Chinese account of Palace doings — and Peking doings — during 1900: As it is, we are all guessing and inferring and putting this and that together, but we have not got at the facts yet ! It's all a question with no finality in it — you may put down your pen, but every new touch will bring a new picture to the eye that looks through the kaleido- scope of history — and the Aurora Borcalis of circum- stance will change unceasingly. " Truly yours, " ROBERT HART." While the Empress Dowager may not have had per- sonal knowledge of every Decree put forth in her name, it is morally certain that without her general sanction none of them could have been issued. That she was kept mis- informed of the actual conditions is altogether likely, and nothing is more probal)le, if not indeed certain, than that the decisive and irrevocable step was taken in one of those paroxysms of fury to which all Chinese and Man- FOREIGNERS IN THE INTERIOR 597 x)j{^iV <^ ^--^ A c? L «? /f- jT^'^ r . ^r^ Vrf--^^-^^ O «r